Nuremberg is the second largest and most important city in Bavaria. Here, the Middle Ages and modernity are wonderfully combined. The city has been known since the 11th century; emperors of the Holy Roman Empire often lived in it for a long time. By the 15th century, Nuremberg had become a major center of crafts and trade; he played a significant role in the economic relations between Southern Germany and Italy. The apogee of the development of the city falls on the middle of the 16th century, when, along with the economic upsurge, science and culture reached a high level. It became one of the centers of German humanism. Nuremberg is the birthplace of A. Dürer and G. Sachs; the humanists W. Pirckheimer, F. Melanchthon and others worked here. In 1524, he was the first of the imperial cities to join the Reformation. At the end of the 16th century, with the movement of trade routes, the economic decline of Nuremberg began. By order of Napoleon in 1806, it ceases to be imperial and becomes simply a Bavarian city. In 1835, Germany ‘s first steam locomotive left Nuremberg. So it can be called the birthplace of the German railway. With its creation, economic power returns to the city. During the years of fascism, congresses of the Nazi party took place in Nuremberg.
The most famous architectural monument in the city is Keiserburg Castle, built in 1050 by Henry III. Actually, the history of the city began with him. Meetings of the Sejm of the Empire were held in the castle, emperors were elected here from the middle of the 14th century, and from 1424 until the end of the 18th century, the treasures of the imperial crown were kept. The castle is surrounded by a five-kilometer wall with 80 towers, the oldest of which is the Fuenfeckturm (Pentagonal Tower), dating from the 11th century. On the territory of the castle there is a magnificent Romanesque chapel. In Nuremberg many gothic churches. Kirche St.Sebaldus is the oldest church in the city (1230-73). It is decorated with sculptures by Veit Sthos. The church contains the tomb of St. Seballdus, as well as the main work of Adam Kraft – a tombstone (1492). The “Madonna im Strahlenkranz” (Madonna in a wreath of rays 1420-1425) deserves special attention. The Frauenkirche (1352-1361) is famous for its 15th-century altarpiece and one of the most interesting works of Nuremberg – a clock with “dancing figures” (1509). The Frauenkirche is decorated with sculptures by Kraft, Fischer, and Stoos. St. Lorenz-Kirche was built in 1270 – 1350. It is the largest in the city. In the church there is a picture of the Annunciation, the Crucifixion and a statue of the Archangel Michael by Stos.
Nassauer Haus is considered to be located in the center of the old town – a six-story building with four corner turrets, built in the Romanesque style and serving as a haven for knights until the 13th century.
The most famous place in the Old Town is the Market Square, which has existed since 1349. On the square is Schoner Brunnen (“beautiful fountain”) with a 19-meter column. It is decorated with rich images of saints, church fathers, Christian and Jewish heroes. It is believed that a person who holds on to a golden ring hanging on a wrought-iron fence will surely be lucky. The Cupid Fountain is no less popular with tourists. Next to it is the town hall building. The town hall consists of two parts – Gothic, built in 1332-40, and Renaissance, built in 1616-22. The fountain together with the town hall make up a unique ensemble of the 17th century.
The most interesting museums are the German National Museum and the Toy Museum. The German National Museum has collected more than a million exhibits dedicated to the history of art and culture of the German-speaking countries. The oldest exhibits are over 30,000 years old! Paintings, sculptures, clothes, scientific instruments, musical instruments and toys are exhibited here. The department of musical instruments houses the world’s largest collection of pianos. The toy museum has a unique collection of toys from the 18th-20th centuries.
According to prozipcodes, Rostock was founded in the 13th century as a port city, a century later it became part of the Hanseatic League. Currently, Rostock is one of the largest cities in the northwest of Germany.
The historic center of the city was badly damaged during the Second World War, but some buildings survived. Here you can see ancient towers and fortifications, pointed houses, Gothic churches and abbeys. The most majestic building is the Marienkirche church. It was built in the 13th century and is the most outstanding building on the German Baltic coast.. The church is decorated with a late Gothic astronomical clock from the 15th century. Inside, special attention should be paid to the altar, the pulpit, the box of nobles with a baroque organ above it. You should also see the city hall with turrets of the XIII century on the New Market, the former Cistercian monastery of the Holy Cross with a Gothic courtyard, the city wall and the ancient gates of the XV century, the Baroque University, the Petri Church. The main museums are the Historical Museum, located in the monastery, which contains paintings by Danish artists of the 18th and 19th centuries, as well as materials on the development of the city, and the Ship Museum, which tells about the history of navigation and the Hanseatic League.
Rostock is not only an administrative and business center, but also a resort. The spa town of Warnemünde is a 20-minute drive from Rostock and has belonged to him since 1323. The beach is covered with pleasant white sand. Along the beach there is a wide boulevard that attracts many vacationers not only in the summer. Sailing, scuba diving, windsurfing, tennis, horseback riding, golf – everything here is at the service of vacationers. There is an old lighthouse on the pier in Warnemünde, and the pier itself goes out to sea at 530 m. It is far from always possible to reach its end – if the sea is restless, the waves overlap over the pier.