According to Countryaah.com, with capital city of Stockholm, Sweden is a country located in Northern Europe with total population of 10,099,276.
Sweden is a parliamentary- democratic and unitary constitutional monarchy after the Constitution of 1975.
The head of state, the king, primarily plays the role of national symbol. Since 1980 there has been equality in the succession to the throne; Crown Princess Victoria is thus number one in the succession. The king does not normally lead, nor participate in, the official meetings of the government, as is the case in Norway and Denmark. Nor does the Swedish king play an active role in the change of government, as the monarchs in the other two Scandinavian countries do, but still presides over the council meeting where the new government is formally appointed. At the request of the Speaker, the King, at the opening of a new (today’s) meeting, declares the meeting open. It is the Prime Minister who reads the statement.
The executive power lies with the government, which is based on, and is responsible to the legislative assembly, the Riksdag. When a government resigns, it is the Speaker of the Parliament (‘the President of Parliament’) who consults with the party leaders and the three deputy governors and on that basis assigns one to form a government. Parliament votes on the prime ministerial candidate proposed by the President. If a majority accepts the proposed candidate, he or she will elect the other ministers and notify the Riksdag who these are. The Riksdag can, with the usual majority, adopt a motion of no confidence against the government or a single minister. If a motion of no confidence is passed, the prime minister, except in the first three months after an election, can dissolve the Riksdag, print new elections and thus let the people decide the issue of confidence.
The Swedish government works more centralized than the Norwegian and Danish ones, and a larger number of cases are decided by the overall government (in government meeting). See ABBREVIATIONFINDER for how SE can stand for Sweden. The Swedish centralization also shows that the Prime Minister’s Office is larger, and plays a more strategic and coordinating role, than the corresponding bodies in Norway and Denmark.
Since 1976, the National Assembly, the Riksdag, has 349 members, since 1994 elected for four years in general elections according to the ratio method (before 1994 the election period was three years). 310 representatives are elected directly from the constituencies, while 39 seats are distributed as equalization seats. A party must have at least 4 percent of the vote in the country in order to get equalization mandates. If a party does not have 4 percent of the vote nationally, but at least 12 percent of the vote in a single circle, it may participate in the distribution of seats in that circle. The voting age is 18 years. Parliament is organized with a Speaker and three visetalmän. The work is distributed to 16 committees with at least 15 members in each. The Riksdag also appoints an advisory body for handling foreign affairs, the Foreign Affairs Committee, which meets under the King’s chair.
The Swedish party system largely reflects the same lines of conflict as the Norwegian one, but conflicts related to distribution issues and the state’s role in the economy have relatively played a somewhat larger role in Sweden than in Norway, while moral-religious and socio-cultural tensions have been of less importance in Sweden than in Norway. The Social Democratic Party has been stronger in Sweden than in almost any other country and has characterized politics since the parliamentary-democratic breakthrough in 1917.
Democratization and modernization started later in Sweden than in Denmark and Norway, but when these processes first started, they quickly gained momentum. From the time after the First World War until the 1960s, Sweden underwent faster development than any other European country. Therefore, during the first few decades after the Second World War, Sweden emerged as a model country for many others: it had a stable democracy, a comprehensive welfare state, and a publicly regulated and “bridged” capitalism. Since the 1980s, Sweden has lost much of this model role.
The ministries in Sweden are smaller than in Norway and act more as policy-making secretariats for the government than as administrative bodies. The actual administration is mainly carried out by rather independent central government offices. These can only be instructed by the government, not by the individual minister, but so-called sub – directives play a certain role. In Sweden, the administration is thus more depoliticized and bureaucratized than in Norway. In recent years, this depoliticization has been intensified insofar as some state-owned enterprises, including in the transport sector, have been transformed into joint stock companies (and are being considered partly privatized).
Territorially, Sweden is divided into 21 counties, each led by a government-appointed governor. The governor leads through a county administrative board. The Swedish state local government bodies are stronger and stronger than can be found in Norway. The counties are also, like the Norwegian counties, their own political systems, with county councils elected in general elections for four years. The county councils have their own tax law; Their main area of responsibility is health care. The municipalities, which after the war have been reduced from over 1000 to 290, are also their own political systems, with elected representatives (the full council) and tax law. Since 1976, immigrants who have lived in Sweden for at least three years can participate in local and county council elections.
Parallel to the counties there are also 25 landscapes, which are a territorial division with ancestry far back. When the counties arose in the 17th century, the landscapes lost their administrative functions and were primarily symbolic. However, many Swedes feel more belonging to the landscape than to the other administrative divisions.
|County||Capital||Area km2||Residents (2017)|
|Stockholm County||Stockholm||6 490||2 269 060|
|Uppsala County||Uppsala||6 989||335 882|
|Södermanland County||Nyköping||6 062||288 097|
|Östergötland County||Linkoping||10 562||452 105|
|Jönköping County||Jonkoping||10 475||352 735|
|Kronoberg County||Vaxjo||8 458||194 628|
|Kalmar County||Kalmar||11 171||242 301|
|Gotland County||Visby||3 140||57 255|
|Blekinge County||Karlskrona||2 941||158 453|
|Skane County||Malmo||11 027||1 271 779|
|Halland County||Halmstad||5 454||320 333|
|Västra Götaland County||Gothenburg||23 942||1 580 297|
|Värmland County||Karlstad||17 586||279 334|
|Örebro County||Orebro||8 517||294 941|
|Västmanland County||Vasteras||6,302||267 629|
|Dalarna County||Falun||28 193||281 046|
|Gävleborg County||Gavle||18 192||284 586|
|Västernorrland County||Harnosand||21 678||245 572|
|Jämtland County||Ostersund||49 443||126 691|
|Västerbotten County||Umea||55 401||265 881|
|Norrbotten County||Lulea||98 911||250 570|