According to Countryaah.com, with capital city of Oslo, Norway is a country located in Northern Europe with total population of 5,421,252.
State and politics
Like Denmark and Sweden, Norway is a parliamentary and democratic monarchy. The Constitution (the Constitution), adopted in Eidsvoll on May 17, 1814, since the Swedish government form of 1809 was abolished in 1970, is Europe’s oldest written constitution. It provided for a constitutional government, which in the spirit of the times would divide power between king (executive), parliament (legislative) and courts (judicial). The Constitution is still a living, historical symbol of freedom, for liberation first from Denmark and then from the union with Sweden, and the Constitutional Day, May 17, has long been Norway’s national day. See ABBREVIATIONFINDER for how NO can stand for Norway.
The political struggle during the Union period was constitutionally very much a struggle between the Swedish King and the Norwegian Parliament. The success of the national struggle also prepared the way for the parliament’s demand for parliamentarism, i.e. political influence over the government. In 1884, Norway became the first country in the Nordic countries to implement the basic principle of modern parliamentarism. This change has not led to any change in the Constitution. The parliamentary principles are based solely on constitutional customary law. The fiction is still that the king decides and the ministers rule. It is for their advice, not for the decisions, that they can be made legally responsible.
The Constitution provides for the government to consist of the prime minister and at least seven other members. In recent years, it has usually consisted of about 20 members, all of whom except the Prime Minister are heads of department. Government members are not allowed to serve as members of the Storting; during his term of office, those elected to the thing are replaced by alternates (alternates).
In the official “Government”, which usually meets once a week, the king presides; the so-called intergovernmental conferences (twice a week) are led by the prime minister. The administration is largely managed and handled by the ministries. At their side are also independent administrative bodies, “directorate”, etc.
The Storting is elected, proportionally, for four years as a single-chamber parliament. It differs from most other parliaments in that it cannot be dissolved during the election period. One consequence has been that Norwegian parliamentarism in crisis situations was characterized by a lack of flexibility. In order to have the right to vote, one must be 18 years old and have been resident in Norway for the past ten years.
When dealing with legislative issues, after preparation in committees (the permanent and special committees), the Storting is divided into the Odelstinget and the Lagtinget, the latter with a quarter of the Storting’s 169 members. All team issues are raised in the Odelstinget. The overall task of the Storting is to deal with the state budget and constitutional amendment issues and to decide when things have stopped in various decisions.
For constitutional amendment, decisions by 2/3 majority of two parliamentary elections with intermediate elections are required. Advisory referenda can be decided by special legislation. The Parliament controls the government in various ways in accordance with common parliamentary principles. This is generally done through the public debate, and in particular through interpellations and issues, through a declaration of confidence and through the national court (the Constitution’s own ultimate instrument of control), before which the Odelstinget raises the case, which most recently took place in 1926-27.
The Supreme Court (the Supreme Court) indirectly participates in the legislative process by rejecting unlawful administrative decisions and unconstitutional laws.
Municipal self-government and administration
Local self-government has its main focus in the country’s 448 municipalities, of which 47 are cities. The governing body, with the right to tax, is the municipal council, the executive body the presidency. The municipality’s administration is led by a councilor, who is an official, not elected. Norway is divided into 19 counties (counties) which, under the leadership of a county governor, is the body for the state administration.
Geographically, they coincide in large with the county municipality. Since 1975, this position has been more independent than before, when the county council (county council) was indirectly elected by the municipal council and lacked tax law. The county council has information on health care, adult education, the road system and others. areas. 1/4 of the thing forms the governing county committee, under which the administration is led by the county councilor. Municipal elections take place every four years, between the parliamentary elections.
In the Storting (2017) there are nine parties. Two parties, the Green Party and the Green Party, have only one mandate each. That this can happen is because the 4 percent small party block in Norway only applies to the distribution of the equalization mandate, not the constituency mandate.
In Sweden, a party must be supported by at least 4 percent of voters nationally, or at least 12 percent of voters in the constituency, in order to participate and share in the constituency mandate; that is not the case in Norway. In the 2017 election, the Environment Party and Red had sufficiently strong support in the capital Oslo to win each mandate there.
The largest party since the end of the 1920s has been the Labor Party. Between 1945 and 1961, the Labor Party had its own majority in the Storting, but during the 1960s the party’s total political dominance ceased.
The past electoral loyalty has, in recent decades, been favored by greater mobility between the parties, both old and new. According to Norwegian election analyzes, the political contradictions are based not only on the traditional left-right scale, but also on values linked to morality and religion and to issues of growth and resource management.
Other old parties are Høyre, the Center Party and the Christian People’s Party. The Left Party Socialist Left Party emerged in 1975 through a merger of various leftist groups and parties, including the Socialist People’s Party and the Norwegian Communist Party. Another relatively new party is the populist Progress Party, formed in 1973. During the 2000s, it has been very successful among voters and was the largest bourgeois party in 2005 and 2009 and Norway’s second largest party. A large part of the party’s success can be found in its asylum and immigration policy, which aims to drastically reduce refugee immigration to Norway.
The bourgeois party Venstre, which ruptured during the EC’s contradictions in the 1970s, was not represented in the Storting in 1985–93. The Green Party The Green Party got its first mandate in the Storting in the 2013 elections, a mandate that the party retained in 2017. The party is a green party with a left profile and was formed in 1988. So far, it has not been as successful as other green parties in Europe, such as Swedish The environmental party, however, has grown during the 2010s.
The newcomer to the 2017 election, Red, was formed in 2007 through a merger of two smaller parties on the left. Red is a socialist party to the left of the Socialist Left Party and says it is striving for a “democratic revolution”.
During the years 2005–13, Norway was ruled by a government led by the Labor Party, with the Socialist Left Party and the Center Party as a coalition partner. The Labor Party gained 32.8 percent in the 2005 parliamentary election and advanced a few percentage points, to 35.4 per cent, in the 2009 election. Another winner in the 2009 election was the Progress Party, which increased its already record-high voter support to 22.9 percent.
The 2013 election meant a reversal of Norwegian politics as the Labor Party lost nine seats in the Storting. The cooperation parties Socialist Venstre and the Center Party also declined (see table below). At the same time, Høyre made a record choice, successes that can be explained by the party’s reorientation from purely conservative right-wing parties to a more inclusive market-liberal general conservative party and in the growing personal popularity of party leader Erna Solberg. Høyre’s ideological development is in many ways reminiscent of the strategic and ideological change of the Swedish Moderates ahead of the 2006 parliamentary elections in Sweden.
Although the Progress Party backed down, the mandate for a new bourgeois government with Høyre in the lead was clear. The result of the negotiations between the bourgeois parties was that Høyre formed government together with the Progress Party. The Liberal Party and the Christian People’s Party did not enter the government, but gave it their parliamentary support through a cooperation agreement. For the Progress Party it was the first time the party took place in a Norwegian government.
In the 2017 elections, both the Høyre and the Progress Party, as well as the government’s two bourgeois support parties, the Venstre and the Christian People’s Party, went back somewhat. However, the four bourgeois parties retained a scarce majority in the Storting (88 seats out of a total of 169). Erna Solberg could remain as prime minister at the head of a minority government in which Høyre, the Progress Party and social liberal Venstre were included. The parliamentary cooperation with the Christian People’s Party continued even though the Christian People’s Party, unlike Venstre, chose not to join the government.
In the municipal and county elections in 2019, the largest parties returned sharply. The Labor Party fell by 8.2 percentage points in the municipal elections, while the Høyre decreased by 3.1 percent in comparison with the same election in 2015.
The Norwegian government cracked down in January 2020 when the Progress Party left the bourgeois four-party government. The crisis was caused by Erna Solberg and the rest of the government deciding to receive IS returnees, which the Progress Party criticized.
Only a very small part of Kristian V’s Norwegian Law of 1687 is still in force. Like the other Nordic countries, Norway lacks codification corresponding to the civil laws in, for example, France and Germany, but civil law is fragmented in many different constitutions. Civil law, criminal law and criminal law, on the other hand, are mainly codified in large statutes. The cases are decided in the first instance in the cities by a municipal court and in the countryside by a district court. In some cases, the goals are decided instead by the so-called conciliation council (conciliation council).
Appellate courts (appellate courts) and, ultimately, the Supreme Court act as appellate courts. Many important legal rules have emerged as a result of Nordic legislative cooperation or as a result of the country’s approach to European integration. The death penalty for crimes committed during peacetime was abolished in 1905. For some serious crimes committed during war or warlike conditions, the death penalty remained in the legislation until 1979; the last execution took place in 1948.
|about 865 – about 933||Harald I Haircuts|
|about 933 – about 935||Erik I Blodyx|
|about 935 – about 960||Håkon I Adalsteinsfostre|
|about 960 – about 970||Harald II Gray trap|
|(about 970–995||Danish rule; Håkon Sigurdsson)|
|995-1000||Olav I Tryggvason|
|(1000-15||Danish rule; Eirik Håkonsson and Svein Håkonsson)|
|1015-28||Olav II Haraldsson (the saint)|
|1028-30||Knot the big one|
|1030-35||Svein Alfivasson (Knutsson)|
|1035-47||Magnus In the good|
|1045-66||Harald III Hard Wires|
|1066-69||Magnus II Haraldsson|
|1066-93||Olav III Calm|
|1093-95||Håkon Magnusson Toresfostre|
|1093-1103||Magnus III Barefoot|
|1103-23||Øystein In Magnusson|
|1103-30||Sigurd (Magnusson) Jorsalafare|
|1130-35||Magnus IV Sigurdsson|
|1130-36||Harald IV Gille|
|1136-61||Inge I Haraldsson (hook back)|
|1142-57||Øystein II Haraldsson|
|1161-62||Håkon II Shepherd|
|1161-84||Magnus V Erlingsson|
|1202-04||Håkon III Sverresson|
|1204-17||Inge II Bårdsson|
|1217-63||Håkon IV Håkonsson|
|1263-80||Magnus VI Team fines|
|1280-99||Erik II Magnusson|
|1299-1319||Håkon V Magnusson|
|1355-80||Håkon VI Magnusson|
|1380-87||Olav IV Håkonsson|
|1396-1442||Erik of Pomerania|
|1442-48||Christophers of Bavaria|
|1449-50||Karl Knutsson (Farmer)|
|1814-18||Charles II (XIII)|
|1818-44||Karl III (XIV) Johan|
|1859-72||Charles IV (XV)|
Prime Ministers and Governments
|1884-89||Johan Sverdrup, Left|
|1889-91||Emil Stang, Right|
|1891-93||Johannes Steen, Left|
|1893-95||Emil Stang, Right|
|1895-98||Francis Hagerup, Assembly Government|
|1898-1902||Johannes Steen, Left|
|1902-03||Otto Blehr, Left|
|1903-05||Francis Hagerup, Right|
|1905-07||Christian Michelsen, Collective Government|
|1907-08||Jørgen Løvland, Left|
|1908-10||Gunnar Knudsen, Left|
|1910-12||Wollert Konow, Liberal Left and Right|
|1912-13||Jens Bratlie, Right and Frisinnede Venstre|
|1913-20||Gunnar Knudsen, Left|
|1920-21||Otto Bahr Halvorsen, Right|
|1921-23||Otto Blehr, Left|
|1923||Otto Bahr Halvorsen, Right and Frisinnede Left|
|1923-24||Abraham Berge, Frisinnede Left and Right|
|1924-26||JL Mowinckel, Left|
|1926-28||Ivar Lykke, Høyre and Frisinnede Venstre|
|1928||Christopher Hornsrud, Labor Party|
|1928-31||JL Mowinckel, Left|
|1931-32||Peder Kolstad, Farmer Party|
|1932-33||Jens Hundseid, Farmer Party|
|1933-35||JL Mowinckel, Left|
|1935-45 *||Johan Nygaardsvold, Labor Party|
|1945||Einar Gerhardsen, Collective Government|
|1945-51||Einar Gerhardsen, Labor Party|
|1951-55||Oscar Torp, Labor Party|
|1955-63||Einar Gerhardsen, Labor Party|
|1963||John Lyng, Right, Left, Center Party and Christian People’s Party|
|1963-65||Einar Gerhardsen, Labor Party|
|1965-71||Per Borten, Center Party, Right, Left, and Christian People’s Party|
|1971-72||Trygve Bratteli, Labor Party|
|1972-73||Lars Korvald, Christian People’s Party, Left and Center Party|
|1973-76||Trygve Bratteli, Labor Party|
|1976-81||Odvar Nordli, Labor Party|
|1981||Gro Harlem Brundtland, Labor Party|
|1981-83||Dear Willoch, Right|
|1983-86||Kåre Willoch, Right, Center Party and Christian People’s Party|
|1986-89||Gro Harlem Brundtland, Labor Party|
|1989-90||Jan P. Syse, Right, Center Party and Christian People’s Party|
|1990-96||Gro Harlem Brundtland, Labor Party|
|1996-97||Thorbjørn Jagland, Labor Party|
|1997-2000||Kjell Magne Bondevik, Christian People’s Party, Center Party, Left|
|2000-01||Jens Stoltenberg, Labor Party|
|2001-05||Kjell Magne Bondevik, Right, Christian People’s Party, Left|
|2005-09||Jens Stoltenberg, Labor Party, Socialist Left Party, Center Party|
|2009-13||Jens Stoltenberg, Labor Party, Socialist Left Party, Center Party|
|2013-17||Erna Solberg, Right, Progress Party|
|2017-||Erna Solberg, Right, Progress Party, Left|
* Between 1940 and 1945 exile government in London.