With its wide range from north to south, the continent spans all climatic zones: polar climates in northern Canada, Alaska and Greenland, temperate in most of Canada and the United States, subtropical in Mexico and tropical in Florida, the Caribbean and southernmost Mexico. Read more about the climate in North America.
The oldest stable core (craton) of the North American continent is made up of a large Precambrian-Cambrian continent, Laurentia, where the bedrock is today exposed in the Canadian Shield and Greenland, while in the interior (Interior Platform) is covered by younger deposits and basins. Read more about North America (Geology).
Farther to the north is the Arctic tundra, and to the south of it a wide boreal coniferous belt, reminiscent of the corresponding zone in Europe and Siberia. Here, species of spruce, fir and larch dominate, and large areas are covered with mosses and bogs. Read more about plant growth in North America.
To the north, in Canada and Alaska, there are many circumpolar species that are also known from Europe and Siberia, such as polar bears, brown bears, wolves, wolves, elk, and reindeer and red deer, which in North America are called respectively. caribou and wapiti. Read more about North America’s wildlife.
In the US and Canada, English is dominant, while Spanish is the main language in Mexico and parts of the Caribbean.
A date of human presence in North America has not been precisely ascertained. The most common assumption is that Asian peoples in the period between 30,000 and 10,000 years BC. traveled from Siberia across the Berings Strait.
The first Europeans to come to North America were Norwegians. SV Greenland remained in 900-t. colonized from Iceland, and from Greenland, Leif the Happy came around 1000 with an expedition to the eastern coast of Canada, and built a short-lived settlement, Vinland; remnants of such a settlement are found at L’Anse-aux-Meadows on the northern tip of Newfoundland.
|Independent states||Capital city||in. (1000) approx. 1997||Area (km2)|
|Antigua and Barbuda||St. John’s||64||442|
|Costa Rica||San José||3370||51100|
|Dominican Rep.||Santo Domingo||8090||48440|
|El Salvador||San Salvador||5790||21041|
|St. Christopher and Nevis||Basseterre||45||262|
|St. Vincent and the Grenadines||Kingstown||118||389|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Port of Spain||1270||5124|
|Anguilla (GB)||The Valley||11||96|
|British Virgin Islands||Road Town||18||130|
|Cayman Islands (GB)||George Town||35||259|
|Guadeloupe (F)||Lower Terre||417||1705|
|Puerto Rico (USA)||San Juan||3800||9104|
|St. Pierre and Miquelon (F)||St-Pierre||7||242|
|Turks and Caicos Islands (GB)||Grand Turk||14||497|
|US Virgin Islands||Charlotte Amalie||97||342|
Central America lies in a geologically very active area, the collision zone between the two small lithosphere plates Cocos plate and Caribbean plate. This creates the Puerto Rico tomb and the movements result in a very high earthquake frequency, which, like the many volcanoes, is especially concentrated in the western part of the area. Ca. 25 volcanoes have been active since 1800. The northern and eastern parts consist of crystalline shales and granites formed by pre- carbon mountain ranges, as well as volcanic rocks (basalt, andesite) and Tertiary granites. There are smaller deposits of gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, chromium, iron and manganese. According to Countryaah, oil is produced in Guatemala and southern Mexico.
|Country||Main parties with mandate in recent elections||Main parties with seats in the penultimate election|
|Antigua and Barbuda||Labor Party 15, United Progress Party 1, Barbuda People’s Movement 1 (2018)||Labor Party 14, United Progress Party 3 (2014)|
|Bahamas||Free National Movement (FNM) 35, Progressive Liberal Party (PLP) 4 (2017)||Progressive Liberal Party (PLP) 29, Free National Movement (FNM) 9 (2012)|
|Barbados||Democratic Labor Party (DLP) 16, Barbados Labor Party (BLP) 14 (2013)||Democratic Labor Party (DLP) 20, Barbados Labor Party (BLP) 10 (2008)|
|Belize||People’s Party (PUP) 26, United Democratic Party (UDP) 5 (2020)||United Democratic Party (UDP) 19, People’s United Party (PUP) 12 (2015)|
|Costa Rica||National Liberation Party (PLN) 17, National Restoration Party (PRN) 14, Citizens’ Action (PAC) 10, Christian Social Unity Party (Pusc) 9, National Integration Party (PIN) 4, others 3 (2018)||National Liberation Party (PLN) 18, Citizens’ Action (PAC) 13, Broad Front (FA) 9, Christian Social Unity Party (Pusc) 8, Libertarian Movement (ML) 4, other 5 (2014)|
|Dominica||Labor Party 15, United Labor Party 6 (2014)||Labor Party 18, United Labor Party 3 (2009)|
|Dominican Republic||Modern Revolutionary Party (PRM) 86/17, Dominican Liberation Party (PLD) 75/6, Christian Socialist Reformist Party (PRSC) 6/6, Dominican Revolutionary Party (PRD) 4/0, People’s Strength (FP) 3/1, others 16/2 (2020)||Dominican Liberation Party (PLD) 106/26, Modern Revolutionary Party (PRM) 42/2, Christian Socialist Reform Party (PRCS) 18/1, Dominican Revolutionary Party (PRD) 16/1, others 8/1 (2016)|
|El Salvador||Arena 37, FMLN 23, Ghana 11, National Consultative Party (PCN) 8, Christian Democratic Party (PDC) 3, others 2 (2018)||Arena 32, FMLN 31, Ghana 11, National Consultative Party (PCN) 4, Arena-PCN 3, Christian Democratic Party (PDC) 1, PCN-PDC 1, PCN-DS 1 (2015)|
|Grenada||New National Party (NNP) 15 (2018)||New National Party (NNP) 15 (2013)|
|Guatemala||UNE 54, Vamos 16, UCN 12, Valor 9, FCN 8, Bien 8, Semilla 7, Viva 7, Todos 7, others 32 (2019)||Líder 44, UNE 36, Todos 18, PP 17, FCN 11, others 32 (2015)|
|Haiti||PHTK 31, Vérité 17, OPL 9, KID 8, Fanmi Lavalas 8, AAA 6, Bouclier 5, Inite patriyotik 4, Fuyzon 4, others incl non-appointed 27 (2016)||Inite 35, Altenativ 11, Ansanm Nou Fò 10, AAA 8, Lavni 7, Rasanble 4, others incl not appointed 24 (2010) 10|
|Honduras||Nationalist Party 61, Libre 30, Liberal Party 26, Pinu 4, Patriotic Alliance (AP) 4, Democratic Association (UD) 4, others 2 (2017)||Nationalist Party 48, Libre 37, Liberal Party 27, Anti-Corruption Party 13, Other 3 (2013)|
|Jamaica||Jamaica’s Labor Party (JLP) 49, National People’s Party (PNP) 14 (2020)||Jamaica’s Labor Party (JLP) 32, National People’s Party (PNP) 31 (2016)|
|Canada||Liberal Party 157, Conservative Party 121, Quebec Bloc (BQ) 32, New Democratic Party (NDP) 24, Green Party 3 and an independent candidate (2019)||Liberal Party 184, Conservative Party 99, New Democratic Party (NDP) 44, Quebec Bloc (BQ) 10, Green Party 1 (2015)|
|Cuba||Cuban Communist Party (PCC) 614||–|
|Mexico||The Movement for National Renewal (Morena) 191/55, The National Action Party (PAN) 81/23, The Labor Party (PT) 61/6, The Social Meeting Party (PES) 56/8, The Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) 45/13, The Citizens’ Movement (MC) 27/7, Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD) 21/8, Mexico’s Green Ecological Party (PVEM) 16/7, New Alliance Party (Panel) 2/1 (2018)||Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) 203, National Action Party (PAN) 108, Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD) 56, Mexican Green Ecological Party (PVEM) 47, National Renewal Movement (Morena) 35, Citizens’ Movement (MC) 26, New Alliance Party (Panel) 10, Social Meeting Party (PES) 8, Labor Party (PT) 6, Independence 1 (2015) 11|
|Nicaragua||Sandinista Front for National Liberation (FSLN) 70, Constitutionalist Liberal Party (PLC) 13, Nicaraguan Liberal Alliance (ALN) 2, Independent Liberal Party (PLI) 2, others 3 (2016)||Sandinista Front for National Liberation (FSLN) 62, Independent Liberal Party (PLI) 26, Constitutionalist Liberal Party (PLC) 2 (2011)|
|Panama||Revolutionary Democratic Party (PRD) 35, Democratic Change (CD) 18, Panamist Party 8, Liberal Republican Movement (Molirena) 5, Independent Candidates 5 (2019)||Democratic Change (CD) 30, Revolutionary Democratic Party (PRD) 25, Panamist Party 12, others 4 (2014)|
|Saint Kitts & Nevis||Unity Team (Unity Team) 7, Labor Party 3, Nevis Renewal Party 1 (2015)||Labor Party 6, People’s Action Movement 2, Affected Citizens’ Movement 2, Nevis Renewal Party 1 (2010)|
|Saint Lucia||United Labor Party (UWP) 11, Saint Lucia Labor Party (SLP) 6 (2016)||St Lucias Labor Party (SLP) 11, United Labor Party (UWP) 6 (2011)|
|St. Vincent & the Grenadines||United Labor Party (ULP) 8, New Democratic Party (NDP) 7 (2015)||United Labor Party (ULP) 8, New Democratic Party (NDP) 7 (2010)|
|Trinidad & Tobago||National People’s Movement (PNM) 22, United National Congress (UNC) 19 (2020)||National People’s Movement (PNM) 23, People’s Partnership 18 (of which UNC 17), (2015)|
|USA||Democrats (D) 222/50, Republicans (R) 212/50 (figures refer to House of Representatives / Senate) (2020)||Democrats (D) 235/47, Republicans (R) 200/53 (figures refer to the House of Representatives / Senate) (2018) 12|