According to Countryaah.com, with capital city of Luxembourg, Luxembourg is a country located in Western Europe with total population of 625,989.
Following the Constitution of 1868, with important changes in 1919 and most recently changed in 1999, Luxembourg is a constitutional monarchy, with a grand duke as head of state, and a parliamentary democracy. Legislative authority has been added to the Chamber of Deputies, which is elected in the general election for five years. The 60 representatives are elected according to the ratio method, but the voters have as many votes as candidates from a circle should be elected and can therefore spread their votes, even on multiple parties. There is voting power and therefore high turnout. A government of 21 people, appointed by the Grand Duke, has certain legislative functions. The Government is appointed by the Grand Duke, but is responsible to the Chamber of Deputies and represents its majority.
Luxembourg is a distinctly unitary state, divided into 12 cantons governed by the state and municipalities, governed by elected councils (6 years) and a mayor appointed by the council. See ABBREVIATIONFINDER for how LU can stand for Luxembourg.
The judiciary consists of peace courts, district courts and a Supreme Court (16 members). The judges of the supreme court are appointed by the Grand Duke, but on the advice of the court itself. The Supreme Court nominates judges for lower courts. Luxembourg does not use jury. It is a separate constitutional court and its own social courts. to settle insurance cases.
Luxembourg has volunteer military service. For the army, the force numbers 900 active personnel, in addition the country has a gendarmerie of 600 personnel (2018, IISS). The country has no navy or air force. Luxembourg is a member of NATO.
The army is easily equipped, heavier equipment includes 48 armored personnel vehicles.
In 2018, Luxembourg participated in the NATO operation in Afghanistan (Operation Resolute Support) with two personnel, and in the EU operations in Mali (EUTM) and in the Mediterranean (EUNAVFOR MED) with two personnel and two helicopters respectively.
Luxembourg draws its origin from a territorial complex constituted in the second half of the century. X by the Count of Bidgau, Sigefredo I, around the castle of this name (Lucilinburhuc, Lützelburg), which he had bought in 963 from the abbey of St. Maximin of Trier. This complex included the territories, subject to him both as count and as secular abbot of Echternach, and as advocatvs of St. Maximin of Trier, as well as the territories in the Moselle region, around Thionville and in the Ardennes, the valley of the ‘Alzette, to the south, and the land of Salm, to the north.
The descendants of Sigefredo I kept this territory except that they were no longer abbots, but advocates of Echternach. Leaning on their important possessions, they were among the most faithful supporters of the emperors of the house of Saxony in Upper Lorraine. Near the end of the century. XI, under the counts Henry III and William, the county title began to be applied to the castle of Luxembourg.
After the death of Count Gisleberto, shortly after 1056, the territories of the house of Luxembourg underwent a division; while the eldest son, Conrad I, inherited the main territory, the younger, Ermanno, had the possessions north of the Ardenne, which from then on constituted the county of Salm (see Luxembourg, house of).
In 1136, with the extinction of the direct descendants of Sigefredo, Luxembourg passed to a collateral descendant, the Count of Namur Enrico, called the Blind, but on his death (1196) the union of the territory of Namur with Luxembourg came to an end. However Tibaldo of Bar, husband of Ermesinda daughter of the count of Namur, managed to wrest from Philip the Noble, Marquis of Namur, the county of Laroche in the Ardennes and the county of Durbuy in the Condroz. This extension of Luxembourg to the north was completed with the purchase of Thionville in the south. The second marriage of Ermesinda to Valerano III, son of Henry III, Count of Limburg and Marquis of Arlon, resulted in the reunion of this marquisate with Luxembourg.
Since then the county of Luxembourg, which had had a completely Germanic character up to that moment, acquired a mixed character: the German population was joined, towards the west, by a Walloon population. But the government of Ermesinda (1196-1247) is also important in other respects. It took steps to ensure a territorial administration for the county, creating provosts, officials appointed and dismissed by it, better agents of the government than the former advocates. of Luxembourg and Arlon, who held their offices as fiefdoms. At this time the franchises granted to many small towns and villages also began to spread, both by extension of the Law of Beaumont in Argonne, and by the concession of a particular charter made by the countess, as was the case of Echternach (1236), of Thionville (1239), and of Luxembourg (1244).