Haiti Political System

According to Countryaah.com, with capital city of Port-au-Prince, Haiti is a country located in North America with total population of 11,402,539.

Where is Haiti

Following the 1987 Constitution, Haiti is a republic based on the principle of division of power between a popularly elected national assembly, a popularly elected president, a prime minister and a government and the courts. In practice, most of Haiti’s governance has been characterized by authoritarian presidential rule and constant military intervention most of the time before and after 1987. Haiti’s governance is one of the least stable in the world. Haiti’s highly unstable and violent governance has, among other things, connection with François Duvalier’s repressive regime 1957–71 and son Jean-Claude Duvaliers continuation of the regime until 1986 (when he fled). The regime relied not least on the president’s private security force, the feared Tonton’s Macoutes.

Formally, the president is elected in the general election for five years and cannot be re-elected immediately. The National Assembly includes a 99-member Chamber of Deputies (expanded from 83 before the 2006 election), elected to the general election for four years, and a Senate with 30 members, elected in the general election for six years (one-third is up for election every other year). The voting age is 18 years. The Prime Minister shall be elected from the party which has a majority in the National Assembly.

Authoritarian governance has led to extensive sanctions from other countries, which has further weakened a miserable economy. The country’s politics are primarily characterized by the struggle for power.


Administratively, Haiti is divided into 10 ministries and these again into district ministries and municipalities. See ABBREVIATIONFINDER for how HT can stand for Haiti.


The judiciary was originally characterized by French law, but this feature was severely weakened under the Duvalier regime. The courts have not been independent of the political authorities. There are appeals courts and civil courts in the capital and three of the provincial capitals. There must be a magistrate’s court in each municipality.

Haiti’s defense

By the transition from military to civilian regime in 1994, the armed forces and the police force were discontinued. From 1995 a national police force has been built up. Since 2011, efforts have been made to build up a military force, and the first recruits began training in Ecuador in 2012.

From 2004 to 2017, there was a UN-controlled multinational stabilization force (MINUSTAH) in the country.

The total strength of Haiti’s armed forces is 150 active personnel (2018, IISS). In addition, 50 personnel arrive in a semi-military coastguard. The army is very easily equipped. The Coast Guard has eight patrol vessels.

According to the constitution of 12 June 1918, modified on 5 October 1927, the president of the republic, elected for six years by the Assembly, exercises executive power and appoints officials. The National Assembly, made up of two chambers (the Senate of 15 members elected for 4 years and the Chamber of Deputies of 36 members elected for two years) which meet annually and separately, exercises legislative power and elects the president in joint chambers. The official language is French; the official religion, Catholicism.

The army has a strength of about 2,700 men, including about 200 officers. Haiti’s navy is limited to a modest coastguard service. In addition, a brigade of the American navy is set up in Port-au-Prince and in CapHaïtien, which also has some small units.