Central and South America – nation states around 1825 (end of the wars of liberation)
In the years between 1810 and 1825, most of the Spanish and Portuguese colonies gained independence. Most of the Central American states made themselves independent from Spain in 1821. Mexico’s declaration of independence had given the decisive impetus. In 1823 they united to form the Central American Confederation, which in 1841, after long civil wars, broke up and could not be restored.
In 1495 the Spanish crown had moved from the original concept of mere trade expansion to that of settlement colonization and land grabbing. With the establishment of the Audiencia of Santa Domingo in 1511, the foundation stone was laid for an organized colonial administration, which was expanded after the conquest of Mexico by Hernán Cortéz and Peru by Francisco Pizarro by audiencias in Mexico, Panama, Guatemala, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia and Chile. Within a few years, Spain developed into the strongest colonial power in the New World.
Brazil was taken over by Pedro Alvares de Cabral for the Portuguese crown in 1500. The attempt at state support for colonial development through a system of land donations failed. Only through the initiative of the privately organized and paramilitary operating Bandeiras, who from the end of the 16th century penetrated ever deeper inland on the hunt for precious metals and Indian slaves, was the Portuguese colonial property opened up. For more information about the continent of South America, please check thereligionfaqs.com.