According to Countryaah.com, with capital city of Brasilia, Brazil is a country located in South America with total population of 212,559,428.
Constitution and political system
Brazil is a presidential and democratic federal state under the 1988 Constitution. See ABBREVIATIONFINDER for how BR can stand for Brazil. The president is elected in the general election for four years and can be re-elected once. If no candidate gets a pure majority, there will be a new ballot between the two candidates who got the most votes. The President leads the government and appoints its members. Legislative authority has been added to a National Assembly consisting of a Chamber of Deputies (Câmara dos Deputados) and a Senate (Senado Federal). The Chamber of Deputies is elected in the general election directly according to the ratio principle; It has 513 members and is elected for four years. The Senate has 81 members, elected for eight years (1/ 3 is selected for four years and the other 2/ 3 after an additional four years) by majority principle; the 26 states and the federal district elect three senators each. The voting age is 16 years, and for persons between the ages of 18 and 70, voting is possible, with the exception of illiterate persons.
The political system is unstable. Throughout the post-war period, the country has constantly switched between military and relatively liberal democratic rule. Major economic problems with social unrest, constant corruption scandals, increasing international pressure on the country to pay closer attention to Indians and the ecology of the Amazon region and a personal and intriguing policy are the main reasons for the low stability. The party system is very fragmented, and they are often loose, fractional coalitions around individuals.
As a federal state, Brazil is divided into 26 states and a federal district (Brazil). Each of these is chaired by a people elected (four years) governor and a legislative assembly. At the local level, there are nearly 4,500 municipalities, governed by elected mayors and councils.
The federal judiciary includes a supreme federal court with 11 judges (serving as state courts), a higher judicial (supreme court) court with 33 judges, five regional federal courts and 26 state courts, in addition to courts and judges in the federal district and territories. The federal judges are appointed by the president for life, but must be approved by the Senate.
Heads of State in Brazil
Brazil gained its final independence in 1822, when Dom Pedro, son of the exiled Portuguese king Johan 6, was proclaimed emperor. Dom Pedro left Brazil in 1831 and handed the throne to his 6-year-old son, Dom Pedro 2. He was deposed in a Republican coup in 1890, and Brazil has been a republic ever since.
|1822-1831||Dom Pedro 1|
|1831-1889||Dom Pedro 2|
|1890-1891||Manuel Deodora da Fonseca|
|1894-1898||Prudente José de Moraes Barros|
|1898-1902||Manuel Ferraz de Campos Salles|
|1902-1906||Francisco de Paulo Rodrigues Alves|
|1906-1909||Affonso Augosto Moreira Penna|
|1910-1914||Hermes Rodrigo da Fonseca|
|1914-1918||Wenceslau Braz Pereira Gomez|
|1919-1922||Epitácio de Silva Pessòa|
|1922-1926||Arthur da Silva Bernardes|
|1926-1930||Washington Louís Pereira de Sousa|
|1946-1951||Enrico Gaspar Dutra|
|1954-1955||João Cafe Filho|
|1955||Carlos Coimbra da Luz|
|1955-1956||Nereu de Oliviera Ramos|
|1964-1967||Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco|
|1967-1969||Artur da Costa e Silva|
|1969-1974||Emílio Garrastazú Médici|
|1979-1985||João Baptista de Figueiredo|
|1990-1992||Fernando Collor de Mello|
|1995-2002||Fernando Henrique Cardoso|
|2003-2010||Luiz Inácio «Lula» da Silva|