The African geological base is very old, which explains the small altitudes. However, we have in East Africa a succession of mountains, such as the Kilimanjaro and the Atlas Mountain Range.
Africa occupies a single tectonic plate, unlike Europe which shares its plate with Asia (Eurasian plate).
In addition, it is mostly made up of plateaus and coastal plains, which can be immensely large, such as the plains of Niger.
On the northern plateau is the Sahara Desert, the longest in the world with 9.2 million km 2 and the Atlas Mountains, a mountain range that reaches 4000 meters high.
Through this area flows the 6755 km Nile River, the longest in Africa and the second in the world. The Nile was the cradle of the earliest civilizations in history, such as the Egyptian.
South of the Sahara we have the Chad Basin, with 2,382,000 km 2 which is a source of fishing for the local population. There is also the Niger River, which is 4180 kilometers long.
In the eastern part of the continent is the Rift Valley, the largest tectonic pit in the world, which forms a 4000 km long, narrow and deep valley. There were traces of the first human groups.
In the same way is the region of the great lakes and the highest points of the continent, where stands the 5895 meters Kilimanjaro.
In the southern part of the continent we find the deserts of Namibia and Kalahari, called “brothers” because they are very close.
The southernmost point on the continent is the Cape of Good Hope and is surrounded by the Drakensberg Mountains.
The Congo Basin, situated in the equatorial zone of the continent, is a huge forest, the 2nd in the world, just behind the Amazon.
- Allcitycodes.com offers country area codes for all African countries. Also includes capital cities of these countries.
From the religious point of view, Islam, Christianity and traditional African religions predominate.
We can generally share that in North Africa the predominant religion is Islam and in sub-Saharan Africa Christianity is the majority. In Ethiopia, for example, are the oldest Christian churches on the continent.
Protestant Christianity is also present due to English, German and Dutch colonization.
African animist religions continue to be practiced by tribes and even those who migrate to the city.
Across the continent with over 50 countries, 2,000 languages are spoken and countless dialects according to Countryaah. In addition to the various languages of African origin, some of the languages introduced by the colonizers are still used today: Arabic, English, French, Portuguese and Spanish.
In certain countries, such as the Seychelles, the language of the colonizer, French, has been so mixed with the local language that it is already considered another language: Creole.
For this reason it is easy to find Africans who are true polyglots.
|Country||Main parties with mandate in recent elections||Main parties with seats in the penultimate election|
|Algeria||National Liberation Front (FLN) 164, Democratic National Assembly (RND) 97, Social Movement for Peace-Front for Change 33, Assembly for Hope Algeria 19, Ennahda-FJD 15, Socialist Front 14, Future Front 14, others 106 (2017)||National Liberation Front (FLN) 220, Democratic National Assembly (RND) 68, Green Algeria Alliance 48, Socialist Front 21, Labor Party 20, others 85 (2012)|
|Angola||The People’s Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) 150, The National Union for the Total Liberation of Angola (Unita) 51, Broad Assembly for the Rescue of Angola (Casa-CE) 16, PRS 2, FNLA 1 (2017)||The People’s Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) 175, The National Association for the Total Liberation of Angola (Unita) 32, Broad Assembly for the Rescue of Angola (Casa-CE) 8, PRS 3, FNLA 2 (2012)|
|Benin||Progressive Union (UP) 47, Republican Bloc (BR) 36 (2019)||The Cauri forces for a prominent Benin (FCBE) 33, The Union Makes the Nation (UN) 13, Democratic Renewal (PRD) 10, others 27 (2015)|
|Botswana||Botswana’s Democratic Party (BDP) 38, Assembly for Democratic Change (UDC) 15, Botswana’s Patriotic Front (BPF) 3, others 1 (2019)||Botswana Democratic Party (BDP) 37, Assembly for Democratic Change (UDC) 17, Botswana Congress Party (BCP) 3 (2014)|
|Burkina Faso||People’s Progress Movement (MPP) 56, Democracy and Progress Congress (CDP) 20, New Age for Democracy (NTD) 13, Union for Progress and Change (UPC) 12 and a number of small parties (2020) 18||People’s Progress Movement (MPP) 55, Union for Progress and Change (UPC) 33, Democracy and Progress Congress (CDP) 18, Small Parties 21 (2015)|
|Burundi||CNDD-FDD 72, National Freedom Council (CNL) 27; 3 seats are taken by representatives of the twa people (2020) 19||CNDD-FDD 77, Independent Coalition for Burundians’ Hope 21, Uprona 2; 3 seats taken by representatives of the twa people (2015)|
|Central African Republic||Elections were held on December 27, 2020, but the results are not yet clear||National Union for Democracy and Progress (UNDP) 16, Central African Union for Renewal (URCA) 11, Central African People’s Liberation Movement (MLPC) 10, Central African Democratic Assembly (RDC) 8, National Coalition Movement Kwa Na Kwa 7, Independence 60, other 28 (2016 )|
|Comoros||Collection for Comoros Reconstruction (CRC) 22, Orange Party 2 (2020)||Comoros Development Union (UPDC) 8, Juwa 7, Comoros Reconstruction Assembly (CRC) 2, Comoros Democratic Assembly (RDC) 2, other small parties and dependent candidates 5 (2015)|
|Djibouti||Presidential Majority Union (UMP) 57, Union for Democracy and Justice / Djibouti Development Party (UDJ / PDD) 7, United Center Democrats (CDU) 1 (2018)||Presidential Majority Union (UMP) 43, National Rescue Union (USN) 21, United Center Democrats (CDU) 1 (2013)|
|Egypt||Future of the Nation 316, Republican People’s Party 50, New Wafd 26, Defender of the Fatherland 23, Modern Egypt 11, Reform and Development 9, Social Democrats 7, Freedom Party 7, Conference Party 7, al-Nur 7, Tagammu 6, Independence 124, others 3 (2020)||Independent candidates 351 (of which 28 appointed by the President), Free Egyptians 65, Future of the Nation 53, New Wafd 36, others 91 (2015)|
|Equatorial Guinea||Equatorial Guinea’s Democratic Party (PDGE) 99, Citizens for Renewal (CI) 1 (2017)||Equatorial Guinea’s Democratic Party (PDGE) 99, Social Democratic Assembly (CPDS) 1 (2013)|
|Ivory Coast||Houphouetist Meeting for Democracy and Peace (RHDP) 167, Union for Democracy and Peace in Côte d’Ivoire (UDPCI) 6, Ivorian People’s Front (FPI) 3, Union for Côte d’Ivoire Peace 3, Independent Members 75 (2016)||Republican Assembly (RDR) 127, Côte d’Ivoire Democratic Party (PDCI) 77, and others (2011)|
|Eritrea||only allowed party is the Popular Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ)||–|
|Ethiopia||Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) 500, EPRDF Allied Parties 46 (2015)||Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) 499, EPRDF Allied Parties 46, Medrek 1, Independence 1 (2010)|
|Gabon||Gabon Democratic Party (PDG) 98, parties allied with PDG 20, Democrats 11, Assembly for Heritage and Modernity 4, National Union 2, Independent Members 8 (2018) 20||Gabon’s Democratic Party (PDG) 114, Assembly for Gabon (RPG) 3, Social Democratic Party (PSD) 1, Circle of Liberal Reformers (CLR) 1, Union for the New Republic (UNR) 1 (2011) 29|
|Gambia||UDP 31, APRC 5, NRP 5, GDC 5, PDOIS 4, PPP 2, Independent Candidate 1 (2017)||APRC 43, NRP 1, Independent Candidates 4 (2012)|
|Ghana||New Patriotic Party (NPP) 137, National Democratic Congress (NDC) 137, Independence 1 (2020)||National Democratic Congress (NDC) 169, New Patriotic Party (NPP) 106 (2016)|
|Guinea||Guinean People’s Coalition Party (RPG) 79, Guinea’s Democratic Union (UDG) 4, Guinea’s Democratic Movement 3, New Democratic Forces 3 and a series of small parties given between 1 and 2 seats (2020)||Guinean People’s Coalition Party (RPG) 53, Guinea’s Democratic Forces (UFDG) 37, Republican Forces Union (UFR) 10 remaining seats went to two smaller parties (2013)|
|Guinea-Bissau||African Independence Party for Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde, PAIGC (47), The Movement for a Democratic Alternative, Madem-G15 (27), Party for Social Renewal, PRS (21), Assembly for the Unity of the People-Guinea-Bissau Democratic Party, APU- PDGB (5), others (2) (2019)||African Independence Party of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde, PAIGC (55), Party for Social Renewal, PRS (41), others (4) (2014)|
|Cameroon||Cameroonian People’s Democratic Assembly (RDPC) 152, National Union for Democracy and Progress (UNDP) 7, Social Democratic Front 5, Other 16 (2020)||Cameroon’s Democratic Assembly / RDPC (148), Social Democratic Front / SDF (18), National Union for Democracy and Progress / UNDP (5), Cameroon’s Democratic Union / UDC (4), Cameroon’s Union / UPC (3), others ( 2) (2013)|
|Cape Verde||The Movement for Democracy (MPD) 38, Cape Verde African Independence Party (PAICV) 27, Cape Verde Democratic and Independent Union (Ucid) 3 (2016)||Cape Verde African Independence Party (PAICV) 38, Movement for Democracy (MPD) 32, Cape Verde Democratic and Independent Union (Ucid) 2 (2011)|
|Kenya||Anniversary Party (JP) 163/24, Orange Democratic Movement (ODM) 73/13, WDM Kenya 22/2, Amani National Congress (ANC) 13/2, Ford Kenya 11/2, Kenya African National Union (Kanu) 10 / 2 and more. In the National Assembly, about 10 smaller parties are represented and 14 independent members, in the Senate two smaller parties and one independent member are added. (2017) 21||Orange Democratic Movement (ODM) 93/11, National Alliance (TNA) 86/11, United Republican Party (URP) 72/9, WDM-Kenya 25/4, United Democratic Party (UDFP) 11/2, Ford-Kenya 9/4 and others (2013) 30|
|Congo-Brazzaville||preliminary results give the governing party PCT 90, Upads 8 and UDH-Yuki 8 seats (2017) 22||the ruling party PCT and its allies 108, Upads 7, other 21 (2012)|
|Congo-Kinshasa||Congo Common Front (FCC) 337, Lamuka 102, Towards Change (Cach) 46 (2018) 23||Reconciliation and Development Party (PPRD) 69, Union for Democracy and Social Progress (UDPS) 42, People for Peace and Democracy (PPPD) 30, Social Renewal Movement (MSR) 28, Congolese Liberation Movement (MLC) 21 and others (2011 )|
|Lesotho||All Basotho Convention (ABC) 48, Democratic Congress (DC) 30, Lesotho Congress for Democracy (LCD) 11, Democratic Alliance (AD) 9, Movement for Economic Change (MEC) 6, Basotho National Party (GDP) 5, others 8 ( 2017)||Democratic Congress (DC) 47, All Basotho Convention (ABC) 46, Lesotho Congress for Democracy (LCD) 12, Basotho National Party (GDP) 7, others 8 (2015)|
|Liberia||Congress for Democratic Change (CDC) 21, Unity Party (UP) 19, People’s Unity Party (PUP) 5, Freedom Party (LP) 3, All Liberians Party (ALP) 3, Movement for Democracy and Reconstruction (MDR) 2, and several smaller parties and 12 independent candidates 12 (2017) 24||Unity Party (UP) 24/10, Congress for Democratic Change (CDC) 11/3, Freedom Party (LP) 7/1, National Union for Democratic Progress (NUDP) 6/2 and more (2011)|
|Libya||all candidates stood as independent (2014)||National Forces Alliance (NFA) 39, Justice and Reconstruction Party (JCP) 17, most other members were independent (2012)|
|Madagascar||We all with President Rajoelina 84, I love Madagascar 16, other parties 5, independent candidates 46 (2019)||With President Andry Rajoelina (Mapar) 49, Ravalomanana movement 19, Madagascar starting over together 14, other parties and independence 65, annulled mandate 4 (2013)|
|Malawi||Democratic Progress Party (DPP) 62, Malawi Congress Party (MCP) 55, United Democratic Front (UDF) 10, People’s Party (PP) 5, Small Parties 5, Independent Candidates 55 (2019) 25||Democratic Progress Party (DPP) 51, Malawi Congress Party (MCP) 48, People’s Party (PP) 26, United Democratic Front (UDF) 14, Small Parties 2, Independent Candidates 52 (2014)|
|Mali||Assembly for Mali (RPM) 53, Alliance for Democracy in Mali (Adéma) 22, URD 19, Movement for Mali 11, Alliance for Solidarity in Mali 9, Democratic Alliance for Peace-Mali 8, Assembly for Mali Development 6, other parties and independent 19 (2020)||Collection for Mali (RPM) 61, Adema 20, URD 18, other and independent 43 (2013)|
|Morocco||Justice and Development Party (PJD) 125, Party for Authenticity and Modernity (PAM) 102, Independence Party (Istiqlal) 46, National Assembly of Independents (RNI) 37, People’s Movement (MP) 27, People’s Socialist Union (USFP) 20, Constitutional Union (UC) 19, Party for Progress and Socialism (PPS) 12, others 7 (2016)||Justice and Development Party (PJD) 107, Independence Party (Istiqlal) 60, Independent National Assembly (RNI) 52, Party for Authenticity and Modernity (PAM) 47, People’s Socialist Union (USFP) 39, People’s Movement (MP) 32, Constitutional Union (UC) 23, Party for Progress and Socialism (PPS) 18, others 17 (2011)|
|Mauritania||UPR 89, FNDU 29 (of which Tewassoul 14), moderate opposition 10, others 29 (2018)||UPR 75, Tawassoul 16, El Wiam 10, APP 7, others 38 (2013)|
|Mauritius||Militant Socialist Movement (MSM) 38, Mauritius Labor Party 13, Mauritius Militant Movement (MMM) 9 (2019)||People’s Alliance 51, Labor Party-MMM 16, Organization of the People of Rodriguez (OPR) 2 (2014)|
|Mozambique||Frelimo 184, Renamo 60, others 6 (2019)||Frelimo 144, Renamo 89, MDM 17 (2014)|
|Namibia||Swapo 63, PMD (formerly DTA) 16, LPM 4, Nudo 2, APP 2, UDF 2, others 7 (2019)||Swapo 77, DTA 5, RDP 3, UDF 2, APP 2, Nudo 2, WRP 2, others 3 (2014) 31|
|Niger||Nigerian Party for Democracy and Socialism (PNDS) 80, Nigerian Democratic Movement for an African Federation (Mature) 19, National Movement for Social Development (MNSD) 13, Congress of the Republic (CPR) 8, RDR 7, Nigerian Patriotic Movement (MPN) 6 , other 33 (2020)||Nigerian Party for Democracy and Socialism (PNDS) 75, Nigerian Democratic Movement for an African Federation (Mature) 25, National Movement for Social Development (MNSD) 20, Patriotic Movement for the Republic (MPR-Jamhuriya) 13, 38 others (2016)|
|Nigeria||Progress Congress (APC) 217/65, People’s Democratic Party (PDP) 115/39, All Progressives Grand Alliance (APGA) 9/0, African Democratic Congress (ADC) 3/0, other 7/1, not yet distributed seats 9/4 (2019) 26||Progress Congress (APC) 225/60, People’s Democratic Party (PDP) 125/49, others 10/0 (2015)|
|Rwanda||Rwanda’s Patriotic Front (FPR / RPF) 40, Social Democratic Party (PSD) 5, Liberal Party (PL) 4, Democratic Green Party (DGP) 2, Social Party Imberakuri 2 (2018)||Rwandan Patriotic Front (FPR / RPF) 41, Social Democratic Party (PSD) 7, Liberal Party (PL) 5 (2013)|
|São Tomé and Príncipe||Independent Democratic Action (ADI) 25, The Freedom Movement for São Tomé and Príncipe-Socialdemokratiska party (MLSTP-PSD) 23, Electoral Alliance between PCD, UDD and MDFM 5, others 2 (2018)||Independent Democratic Action (ADI) 33, The Freedom Movement of São Tomé and Príncipe-Socialdemokratiska party (MLSTP-PSD) 16, Democratic Assembly Party (PCD) 5, UDD 1 (2014)|
|Senegal||Benno Bokk Yakaar 125, Mankoo Taxawu Senegaal 19, Mankoo Taxawu Senegaal 7, others 14 (2017)||Benno Bokk Yakaar 119, Senegal’s Democratic Party (PDS) 12 and 19 seats for several smaller parties (2012)|
|Seychelles||Seychelles Democratic Alliance (LDS) 25, United Seychelles 10 (2020)||Seychelles Democratic Alliance (LDS) 19, Lepep Party 14 (2016)|
|Sierra Leone||General People’s Congress (APC) 68, Sierra Leone People’s Party (SLPP) 49, Coalition for Change (C4C) 8, National Grand Coalition (NGC) 4, Independent Candidates 3 (2018) 27||General People’s Congress (APC) 67, Sierra Leone People’s Party (SLPP) 42 (2012)|
|Somalia||a new parliament, appointed by a group of elders, took office in December 2016||a new parliament, appointed by a group of elders, took office in August 2012|
|Sudan||National Congress Party (NCP) 323, Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) 25, other 78 (2015)||National Congress Party (NCP) 323, SPLM 99, others 28 (2010)|
|Swaziland||political parties may not participate in elections||political parties may not participate in elections|
|South Africa||African National Congress (ANC), 230, Democratic Alliance (DA) 84, Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF) 44, Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) 14, Freedom Front Plus 10, others 18 (2019)||African National Congress (ANC), 249 Democratic Alliance (DA) 89, Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF) 25, Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) 10, National Freedom Party (NFP) 6, Freedom Front Plus (4) others 17 (2014)|
|South Sudan||Sudanese People’s Liberation Movement / SPLM (251), Sudanese People’s Liberation Movement-Democratic Change / SPLM-DC (8), National Congress Party / NCP (3), Independence (6) (2010)||–|
|Tanzania||Revolutionary Party (CCM) 262, other 2 (2020)||Revolutionary Party (CCM) 253, Chadema 70, United Citizens’ Front (CUF) 42, Alliance for Change and Transparency (ACT-Wazalendo) 1 (2015)|
|Chad||Chad’s Rebirth Alliance ART (which includes President Déby’s Patriotic Rescue Movement, MPS) 132, National Union for Development and Renewal (UNDR) 11, URD-PLD 8, RNDT-Le Réveil 8, FAR-PF 4, others 25 ( 2011)||Patriotic Rescue Movement (MPS) 110, Assembly for Democracy and Progress (RDP) 12, Action Front for the Republic (FAR) 9, National Assembly for Democracy and Progress (RNDP) 5, National Union for Development and Renewal (UNDR) 5, Union for Renewal and Democracy (URD) 3 (2002)|
|Togo||Union for the Republic (Unir) 59, Union of Transforming Forces (UFC) 7, Small Parties 7, Independent Candidates 18 (2018)||Union of the Republic (Unir) 62, Save Togo Collective (CST) 19, Rainbow Alliance (AAC) 6, Union of Transformers (UFC) 3, Independent Candidate 1 (2013)|
|Tunisia||Ennahda 52, Qalb Tounes 38, Attayar 22, Karama 21, Free Constitutional Party 17, Tahya Tounes 14, Machrou Tounes 4, Nida Tounes 3 (2019)||Nida Tounes 86, Ennahda 69, Fria patriotiska unionen (UPL) 16, Folkfronten 15, Afek Tounes 8, Samling för republiken (CPR) 4 (2014)|
|Uganda||National Resistance Movement (NRM) 316, National Unity Platform (NUP) 61, another 48 seats went to five other opposition parties (2021) 28||National Resistance Movement (NRM) 293, Forum for Democratic Change (FDC) 36, Democratic Party 15, Uganda People’s Congress (UPC) 6, Independent Candidates 66 (2016) 32|
|Zambia||Patriotic Front (PF) 80, United Party for National Development (UPND) 58, Movement for Multi-Party Democracy (MMD) 3, Forum for Democracy and Development (FDD) 1, Independent Candidates 14 (2016)||Patriotic Front (PF) 60, Movement for Multi-Party Democracy (MMD) 55, United Party for National Development (UPND) 28, Forum for Democracy and Development (FDD) 1, Independent Candidates 3, Other 3 (2011)|
|Zimbabwe||Zanu-PF 180, MDC Alliance 88, National People’s Party 1, Independence 1 (2018)||Zanu-PF 197, MDC-T 70, MDC 2, Independent 1 (2013)|
African History and Colonization
The beginnings of his colonization date from the Quaternary era or the end of the tertiary era, and it is possible that man has his origins on this continent.
North Africa is the oldest region in the world occupied by humans. The hominid fossils found there in Tanzania and Kenya are about five million years old.
The name “Africa” is generally related to the Phoenicians as “afar” which means ” dust ” and
In Egypt there was the first state to be formed in Africa, about 5000 years old. Subsequently, with the aim of finding new ways for the Indies, Europeans will launch themselves on the African continent.
There were also great African civilizations on the continent, such as Askum (13th century) in Ethiopia, and Ghana (5th to 11th century).
There were powerful Muslim states such as those of Mali (13th to 15th century), Songhai (15th to 16th century), the Abomey kingdom of Benin (17th century). Finally, the South African Zulu Confederation (19th century).
In the fifteenth century, explorers from Europe conquer the coast of West Africa and from the nineteenth century, the European powers will colonize the interior.
Portugal will dominate Angola, Mozambique, Guinea and strategic islands such as Sao Tome and Principe. Equally, Portugal and other countries will remove from Africa about eleven million people and enslave them in their colonies.
Already in the nineteenth century, the Berlin Conference will literally formalize the imperialist advance on the European continent.
The UK will occupy a strip from north to south, from Egypt to South Africa, as well as other areas it colonized in the Gulf of Guinea. France will be based in northwest Africa, the African equator and Madagascar.
Finally, outnumbered are Germany, which is established in Togo, Tanganyika and Cameroon; and Belgium, the Belgian Congo and Rwanda.
Italy, Libya, Ethiopia and Somalia; and Spain, will occupy part of Morocco, the current Western Sahara and enclaves in Guinea.
However, the African colonies announced their independence, especially after World War II, in a process that would be concluded between 1960 and 1975.
After independence, there were separatist uprisings and coups d’état, culminating in truculent dictatorships.
Thus, in most cases, political independence was only a prerogative at the moment, as, as a rule, the new countries maintained economic ties with their former metropolises.
Africa is the world’s poorest continent: of the thirty poorest countries, at least 21 are Africans.
Extractivism and agriculture are the main activities in Africa. These are practiced at very low technological levels and are therefore very harmful to the environment.
Hunting, fishing and gathering natural products still make up the main sources of income for the majority of the African population. The trade in leather and fur, ivory, woods, resins, palm oil and spices should be highlighted.
However, in the 21st century, due to the rising price of primary products, the African economy has experienced a considerable increase. The region’s growth rates reached up to 9% in the period 2004-2015.
Africa’s agriculture comes in two forms: subsistence and commercial.
The first is rudimentary, itinerant and extensive, and the second, practiced under the old form of Plantation, introduced by Europeans during the colonial period.
The main products of export agriculture are tropical fruits such as bananas, cashews, coffee and flowers.
Due to the unsuitable natural conditions for cattle breeding, Africa has an internal economic activity in cattle raising.
Fauna and Flora
The African fauna is very rich and has the largest animals on earth and in the savannas and steppes, populate the antelopes, zebras, giraffes, lions, leopards, elephants.
In the equatorial forest we can find a wide variety of birds and monkeys.
Thanks to precipitation, the predominant vegetation is the equatorial forest. To the north and south of this range, a region of hot and humid summers, come the savannas, which make up the most abundant vegetation on the continent.
In the Mediterranean Sea and South Africa, the Mediterranean vegetation with shrubs and grasses stands out .
The Sahel is one of the areas where temperatures are milder, with less rainfall and more pronounced dry seasons.
The climatic conditions include: equatorial, tropical, desert and Mediterranean.
The equatorial climate, hot and humid all year round, is in the midwest region of the continent. 75% of the continent is in the tropics. Only the north and south of the continent have a temperate climate.
The warm tropical climate with dry winters dominates the African continent as a whole and the Mediterranean climate emerges in small stretches of the northern tip and the southernmost tip of the continent.
Deserts occupy the rest of the territory, as rainfall is rare near the Tropic of Cancer, which is home to the Sahara Desert, and Kalahari, found in the Tropic of Capricorn.