Thailand became a parliamentary-democratic constitutional
monarchy after the abolition of the absolute kingdom in
1932. Since 1932, Thailand has been through twelve military
coups and nineteen different constitutional, interim
constitutional and constitutional charters.
As a general rule, the executive has been with the prime
minister and the government and the legislative authority of
the two chambers of the National Assembly: the Senate
(Wuthisapha) and the House of Representatives (Sapha
Phuthaen Ratsadon). Since the 2014 military coup, both
executive and legislative authority have been added to the
National Council for Peace and Order, led by General Prauyt
Chan-o-cha. The junta has further appointed a legislative
assembly of 250 representatives. A new constitution is being
Administratively, Thailand is divided into 77 provinces
(jangwat); further into districts (amphoe), sub-districts
(king amphoe), municipalities (tambon), villages (muban). See ABBREVIATIONFINDER for how TH can stand for Thailand. In
the provinces, government-appointed governors govern, while
government officials in fact govern at the district level.
The steering set is fairly centralized; only in the
metropolitan area does local government have an independent
The judiciary has from an old age been
influenced by the Hindu Manu smriti court. In the
late 1800s, Western law began to take effect. It now plays a
significant role. The Supreme Court is the Supreme Court,
where the judges are nominated by the King. Furthermore,
there is a court of appeal, magistrates' courts and first
instance courts. In addition, there are labor courts and
juvenile courts. Judges can only be appointed and dismissed
after approval by a Judicial Service Commission.
Thailand has military service with two years of military
service. The total strength of Tahiland's armed forces is
360,850 active personnel, with a reserve of 200,000
personnel (2018, IISS). In addition, 93,700 are
semi-military, with a reserve of 45,000.
For the army, the force is about 245,000 active
personnel, of which about 115,000 are conscripts. Heavy
equipment includes 360 tanks (105 M48, 178 M60, 49 T-84 and
28 VT-4), 194 light tanks (104 Scorpion, 66 Stingray and 24
M41), 168 storm tanks and 1140 armored personnel vehicles.
The Army also has 19 light transport aircraft, 33 training
aircraft, 291 helicopters, seven of which are Cobra- type
combat helicopters, and four medium- duty drones.
The Air Force has a workforce of about 46,000 active
personnel. Materials include 78 fighters (one F-5B
FreedomFighter, 24 F-5 Tiger II, and 53 F-16), 11 fighter
central Saab, 17 light attack aircraft, two ELINT aircraft,
two AEW & C-plane, five reconnaissance, 42 transport
aircraft, 111 training aircraft (of which 16 Alpha Jet, 26
L-39 Albatros and two T-50 which can also be used as light
fighter aircraft), and 37 helicopters.
The Navy has a staff of 69,850 active personnel,
including 23,000 Marines. The fleet includes one light
aircraft carrier, eight frigates, seven corvettes, 75 patrol
vessels, 17 minesweepers, one dock landing vessel, 16
landing craft, and 13 auxiliary vessels. In addition, the
Navy has 27 aircraft and 28 helicopters.
Semi-military forces include police forces and the
voluntary irregular force Thahan Phran, which has a
workforce of 21,000 personnel.
Thailand participated in 2018 with observers in UN
operations in India/Pakistan (UNMOGIP), Sudan (UNAMID) and
South Sudan (UNMISS).