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Sweden's Political System

Sweden is a parliamentary- democratic and unitary constitutional monarchy after the Constitution of 1975.

Political System of Sweden

The monarch

The head of state, the king, primarily plays the role of national symbol. Since 1980 there has been equality in the succession to the throne; Crown Princess Victoria is thus number one in the succession. The king does not normally lead, nor participate in, the official meetings of the government, as is the case in Norway and Denmark. Nor does the Swedish king play an active role in the change of government, as the monarchs in the other two Scandinavian countries do, but still presides over the council meeting where the new government is formally appointed. At the request of the Speaker, the King, at the opening of a new (today's) meeting, declares the meeting open. It is the Prime Minister who reads the statement.

Government

The executive power lies with the government, which is based on, and is responsible to the legislative assembly, the Riksdag. When a government resigns, it is the Speaker of the Parliament ('the President of Parliament') who consults with the party leaders and the three deputy governors and on that basis assigns one to form a government. Parliament votes on the prime ministerial candidate proposed by the President. If a majority accepts the proposed candidate, he or she will elect the other ministers and notify the Riksdag who these are. The Riksdag can, with the usual majority, adopt a motion of no confidence against the government or a single minister. If a motion of no confidence is passed, the prime minister, except in the first three months after an election, can dissolve the Riksdag, print new elections and thus let the people decide the issue of confidence.

The Swedish government works more centralized than the Norwegian and Danish ones, and a larger number of cases are decided by the overall government (in government meeting). See ABBREVIATIONFINDER for how SE can stand for Sweden. The Swedish centralization also shows that the Prime Minister's Office is larger, and plays a more strategic and coordinating role, than the corresponding bodies in Norway and Denmark.

Reichstag

Since 1976, the National Assembly, the Riksdag, has 349 members, since 1994 elected for four years in general elections according to the ratio method (before 1994 the election period was three years). 310 representatives are elected directly from the constituencies, while 39 seats are distributed as equalization seats. A party must have at least 4 percent of the vote in the country in order to get equalization mandates. If a party does not have 4 percent of the vote nationally, but at least 12 percent of the vote in a single circle, it may participate in the distribution of seats in that circle. The voting age is 18 years. Parliament is organized with a Speaker and three visetalmän. The work is distributed to 16 committees with at least 15 members in each. The Riksdag also appoints an advisory body for handling foreign affairs, the Foreign Affairs Committee, which meets under the King's chair.

Lots

The Swedish party system largely reflects the same lines of conflict as the Norwegian one, but conflicts related to distribution issues and the state's role in the economy have relatively played a somewhat larger role in Sweden than in Norway, while moral-religious and socio-cultural tensions have been of less importance in Sweden than in Norway. The Social Democratic Party has been stronger in Sweden than in almost any other country and has characterized politics since the parliamentary-democratic breakthrough in 1917.

Democratization and modernization started later in Sweden than in Denmark and Norway, but when these processes first started, they quickly gained momentum. From the time after the First World War until the 1960s, Sweden underwent faster development than any other European country. Therefore, during the first few decades after the Second World War, Sweden emerged as a model country for many others: it had a stable democracy, a comprehensive welfare state, and a publicly regulated and "bridged" capitalism. Since the 1980s, Sweden has lost much of this model role.

Management

The ministries in Sweden are smaller than in Norway and act more as policy-making secretariats for the government than as administrative bodies. The actual administration is mainly carried out by rather independent central government offices. These can only be instructed by the government, not by the individual minister, but so-called sub - directives play a certain role. In Sweden, the administration is thus more depoliticized and bureaucratized than in Norway. In recent years, this depoliticization has been intensified insofar as some state-owned enterprises, including in the transport sector, have been transformed into joint stock companies (and are being considered partly privatized).

Administrative division

Territorially, Sweden is divided into 21 counties, each led by a government-appointed governor. The governor leads through a county administrative board. The Swedish state local government bodies are stronger and stronger than can be found in Norway. The counties are also, like the Norwegian counties, their own political systems, with county councils elected in general elections for four years. The county councils have their own tax law; Their main area of ​​responsibility is health care. The municipalities, which after the war have been reduced from over 1000 to 290, are also their own political systems, with elected representatives (the full council) and tax law. Since 1976, immigrants who have lived in Sweden for at least three years can participate in local and county council elections.

Parallel to the counties there are also 25 landscapes, which are a territorial division with ancestry far back. When the counties arose in the 17th century, the landscapes lost their administrative functions and were primarily symbolic. However, many Swedes feel more belonging to the landscape than to the other administrative divisions.

Administrative division

Loan Capital Area km2 Residents (2017)
Stockholm County Stockholm 6 490 2 269 060
Uppsala County Uppsala 6 989 335 882
Södermanland County Nyköping 6 062 288 097
Östergötland County Linkoping 10 562 452 105
Jönköping County Jonkoping 10 475 352 735
Kronoberg County Vaxjo 8 458 194 628
Kalmar County Kalmar 11 171 242 301
Gotland County Visby 3 140 57 255
Blekinge County Karlskrona 2 941 158 453
Skane County Malmo 11 027 1 271 779
Halland County Halmstad 5 454 320 333
Västra Götaland County Gothenburg 23 942 1 580 297
Värmland County Karlstad 17 586 279 334
Örebro County Orebro 8 517 294 941
Västmanland County Vasteras 6,302 267 629
Dalarna County Falun 28 193 281 046
Gävleborg County Gavle 18 192 284 586
Västernorrland County Harnosand 21 678 245 572
Jämtland County Ostersund 49 443 126 691
Västerbotten County Umea 55 401 265 881
Norrbotten County Lulea 98 911 250 570
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