Spain is a parliamentary- democratic and semi-federal
monarchy. The head of state is the monarch, while the
executive power lies with the government, which is led by a
prime minister. The National Assembly, Cortes, consists of
two chambers, a Chamber of Deputies and a Senate.
Spain is divided into 17 autonomous regions, which in
turn are divided into 50 provinces. See ABBREVIATIONFINDER for how ES can stand for Spain. The country's supreme
court is the Supreme Court, Tribunal Supremo.
Constitution and political system
According to the Constitution of 1978, Spain is a
parliamentary-democratic and semi-federal monarchy. Felipe 6
is the king of Spain. He took over in 2014 after Juan Carlos
1. Juan Carlos was appointed by General Franco in 1969 to
continue his politics, but upon his accession in 1975, Juan
Carlos played a crucial role in the reintroduction of
democracy in Spain.
Although the king thus became an important political
player, and to some extent remains to be, the king's role is
primarily of a constitutional nature. The real executive
power lies with the parliamentarily responsible, prime
The House, Cortes, consists of two houses:
- A people-elected deputy congress with 350 members.
Ratio choicesare kept. The Spanish name is Congreso
de los Diputados.
- A Senate with 208 elected (by majorityin each
province) and 51 indirectly elected (from the autonomous
regions) members. The Spanish name is Senado.
The first house is politically important. Both houses are
selected for four years, but can be dissolved before a
period is over. In addition, there is a consultative
government council, Consejo de Estado, with 23
Regional contradictions play a role in Spain. In 1979,
the statute for 17 autonomous regions was approved by
referendum. Each region has a people-elected assembly and a
government. However, the autonomy of the regions varies
The Basque Country and Cataluña have the greatest
autonomy; the latter gained greater self-government
following a referendum in 2006. As the most economically
developed parts of Spain, and as culturally rather distinct,
they have always disliked being governed from Madrid and the
traditionally less developed Castilla.
Under the regions, Spain is further divided into 50
provinces and a large number of municipalities, all with a
certain degree of local autonomy and with elected governing
bodies. In addition, there are two excavators in Morocco:
Ceuta and Melilla.
The judiciary is administered by a Judicial General
Council, the Consejo General del Poder Judicial,
consisting of the chairman of the Supreme Court and 20
members appointed by the king. The Attorney General is
appointed by the King on a proposal from the Government.
The Supreme Court is the Supreme Court, Tribunal
Supremo, divided into five courts. At the next level
there are a number of offenses, such as national law (with
three branches), the supreme courts of the autonomous
regions and the provincial courts.
The lower courts include criminal, administrative, labor,
juvenile, and first-degree court cases. In addition there
are interrogation courts and, in municipalities that lack
ordinary first instance courts, magistrate courts.
The current law is to a large extent collected in
codifications, mainly according to the French pattern.
Spain's international relations
Spain is a member of the UN and the UN's special
organizations, including The World Bank, by the way EU,
NATO, Council of Europe, OSCE, World Trade Organization and
Spain is represented in Norway at its embassy in Oslo,
while Norway is represented in Spain at its embassy in
Madrid. In addition, Norway has a Consulate General in
Alicante and 14 honorary consultants in Spain. Honorary
consulates can be found in Algeciras, Barcelona, Benidorm,
Bilbao, Castellón de la plana, Gerona, La Coruña, Malaga,
Las Palmas, Seville, Tenerife, Torrevieja and Valencia.