Following the constitution of 1959, with amendments by
1996, Singapore is a unified state and democratic republic.
The head of state, the president, is elected in the general
election for six years. The real executive power lies with
the government and the prime minister. The prime minister's
position is particularly strong because he also leads the
completely dominant party, the People's Action Party (PAP).
This party has been in power continuously since 1959, and
has usually held almost all the seats in the 84-member
parliament. The MPs are elected in general elections for
five years from single or multi-person constituencies. The
policy is dominated by the almost state-carrying party and
its leader, and has a slightly authoritarian character. To
ensure national unity, a 21-member presidential council has
also been established.
The judiciary is British in character, but since 1994 the
British Privy Council Judicial Committee is no longer the
supreme court of appeal. The country's supreme court is the
Supreme Court; it includes a court of appeal and a court of
appeal. The President of the Supreme Court is appointed by
the President after consultation with the Prime Minister.
The other Supreme Court judges are also appointed by the
President, but after consultation with the Supreme Court
chair. The further courts are district courts, magistrates'
courts, juvenile courts, forensic and minor litigation
courts. There is also a Muslim Sharia law and two labor
rights. Since emphasis is placed on working life, the last
two dishes are of great importance.
Singapore is divided into five districts but has no local
government. See ABBREVIATIONFINDER for how SG can stand for Singapore.