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Portugal's Political System

Constitution and political system

Portugal became a republic in 1910. Following the 1976 constitution, last amended in 2001, Portugal is a single-state, parliamentary- democratic republic. After the fall of the dictatorship in 1974, the governing body was for some time strongly shifted to the left, but since 1982 it has been constantly adapted to the pattern that characterizes most Western European countries.

Political System of Portugal

The head of state is a president elected in the general election for five years. During the almost revolutionary period of the 1970s, the position of the president was strong; it has since weakened. The executive is now primarily with the prime minister and the government. The government is based on and is responsible to the Legislative Republican Assembly (Assembléia da Repúblika) with 230 elected members, who are elected in general elections for four years. The party system has gradually become firmer and more like the rest of Western Europe. The politics is characterized by the socialists on the left and the social democrats, who in Portugal are a center/right party. The Communist Party stood strong in the first years after the regime change, but has since lost influence. There are also several smaller center and right parties.

Administrative division

The islands of the Azores and Madeira are established as autonomous regions with their own governments and legislative assemblies. On the mainland there are 18 districts, which in turn are divided into 305 municipalities. The districts are led by state-appointed governors, while in the municipalities there are elected parliaments. See ABBREVIATIONFINDER for how PT can stand for Portugal.

Judiciary

Courts exist in three courts: Supreme Court, Appeal and District Courts. Supreme Court members are appointed for life by the Supreme Magistrate's Council. The Portuguese legal system is influenced by the French.

Presidents of Portugal

Government Period President
1910-1911 Joaquim Teófilo Braga
1911-1915 Manuel José de Arriaga
1915 Joaquim Teófilo Braga
1915-1917 Bernardino Luiz Machado Guimarães
1917-1918 Sidónio Bernardino Cardoso da Silva Pais
1918-1919 João do Canto e Castro Silva Antunes
1919-1923 Antonio José de Almeida
1923-1925 Manuel Teixeira Gomes
1925-1926 Bernardino Luiz Machado Guimarães
1926-1951 Antonio Óscar de Fragoso Carmona
1951-1958 Francisco Higino Craveiro Lopes
1958-1974 Américo de Deus Rodrigues Tomás
1974 António de Spínola
1974-1976 Francisco da Costa Gomes
1976-1986 Antonio Ramalho Eanes
1986-1996 Mário Soares
1996-2006 Jorge Sampaio
2006-2016 Aníbal Cavaco Silva
2016- Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa

Prime Ministers of Portugal.

Period Prime minister
1932-1968 António de Oliveira Salazar
1968-1974 Marcelo Caetano
1974 Adelino da Palma Carlos
1974-1975 Vasco dos Santos Gonçalves
1975-1976 José Baptista Pinheiro de Azevedo
1976-1978 Mário Soares
1978 Alfredo Nobre da Costa
1978-1979 Carlos Mota Pinto
1979-1980 Maria de Lourdes Pintassilgo
1980 Francisco de Sá Carneiro
1981-1983 Francisco Pinto Balsemão
1983-1985 Mário Soares
1985-1995 Aníbal Cavaco Silva
1995-2002 António Guterres
2002-2004 José Manuel Durão Barroso
2004-2005 Pedro Santana Lopes
2005-2011 José Sócrates
2011-2015 Pedro Passos Coelho
2015- António Costa

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