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Nepal's Political System

The Provisional Constitution, which came into force on January 15, 2007, declared Nepal as a federal democratic republic. The king was deprived of all power in the transitional constitution, and the prime minister became the head of state. Formal introduction of the Republic took place on May 28, 2008, when the Constitutional Assembly met for the first time. The country had been a monarchy since 1769.

A new constitution came into force in 2015, declaring Nepal as a federal state with three levels of government: federal, provincial and local. The intention is to decentralize power from Kathmandu to the newly created seven provinces and to municipal units. One third of the seats are reserved for women at all three levels of government. A system has also been created to ensure representation of casteless, indigenous peoples and minority groups in the governing structures.

Political System of Nepal

Administratively

Following the 2015 Constitution, Nepal has seven provinces and municipal units. See ABBREVIATIONFINDER for how NP can stand for Nepal.

Judiciary

The judiciary includes a Supreme Court, appeals courts and district courts. The chairman of the Supreme Court is appointed by the king on the recommendation of a constitutional council, while other judges are appointed on the recommendation of a judicial council.

Nepal's foreign policy

Nepal's foreign policy is neutral and has been characterized by a balance between the powerful neighbors India and China. Almost all trade goes across the Indian border. In 2014, India and Nepal signed a trade and investment agreement.

The Maoist uprising (the civil war between Maoists and the Nepalese government, 1996–2006) made Nepal a new focal point in troubled South Asia. This created the nervousness of the superpower neighbor India, who feared that the uprising might spread across the borders of India's own Maoists - the Naxalites. China has condemned the Maoists as "terrorists" and believes they have nothing in common with China's revolutionary leader Mao Zedong. The United States, Britain and India have supported the military with military equipment.

Nepal's relationship with neighboring Bhutan has been tense since the early 1990s, when 200,000 ethnic Nepalis were forced out of Bhutan.

Nepal's defense

Nepal has volunteer military service. The country contributes personnel and observers to UN peacekeeping operations. The United Kingdom has a training camp in Nepal for Ghurka forces. The total force numbers for Nepal's armed forces are 96,600 active personnel. (2018, IISS). In addition, 15,000 semi-military police forces. The country has no air force of its own, and no navy.

The Army has 96,600 active personnel. Heavy equipment comprised 40 lorries, and 253 armored personnel vehicles. In addition two light transport aircraft, and 15 helicopters.

International operations

Nepal participated in 2018 UN operations in Central African Republic (MINUSCA) with 340 personnel, Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUSCO) with 884 personnel and 10 observers, in Iraq (UNAMI) with 77 personnel, in Lebanon (UNIFIL) with 871 personnel, in Libya (UNISMIL) with 229 personnel and one observer, in Mali (MINUSMA) with 153 personnel and three observers, in South Sudan (UNMISS) with 1745 personnel and 13 observers, in Sudan (UNAMID) with 359 personnel and seven observers, and in Syria/ Israel (UNDOF) with 333 personnel.

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