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Mozambique Politics

State and politics

Mozambique has since been governed by Portugal 1975 independence from Frelimo, who until 1994 was the only allowed party and has since won in all elections.

Political System of Mozambique

GOVERNMENT

The 1990 Constitution guarantees citizens freedom of opinion, meeting, association, opinion, press, strike and religious freedom. The country is divided into ten provinces plus Maputo, which is a separate administrative area. See ABBREVIATIONFINDER for how MZ can stand for Mozambique.

The president, who is both head of state and government and commander-in-chief, is elected for five years through direct elections with the possibility of re-election. At the same time, Parliament, which has 250 members, is elected by universal and direct elections.

Policy

Dominant parties in Mozambique are Frelimo (Frente de Libertação de Mozambique, 'The Front of the Liberation of Mozambique'), who abandoned his original Marxist-Leninist ideology in 1989, and Renamo (Resistencia Nacional Mozambicana, 'Mozambique's national resistance'), which arose as a but became a political party and participated in the first multi-party in 1994.

At most, Renamo received 39 percent of the vote in a parliamentary election (1999) and has never succeeded in conquering power. State-backed Frelimo gradually increased its voter support from 44 percent of the vote in 1994 to 75 percent in 2009 and has remained the country's dominant political force. A number of smaller parties have tried to challenge the two dominant parties, but it has never happened that more than a total of three parties have taken office in parliament. Ahead of the 2009 election, the Movimento Democrático de Mozambique (MDM) party was formed, which in 2014 made its best choice during the 10th with 8 percent of the vote and 17 seats.

Joaquim Chissano (Frelimo), president from 1986, was elected in 1994 with 53 percent of the vote against 34 percent for Renamo's leader Afonso Dhlakama (1953–2018). Chissano was re-elected in 1999 with 52 percent of the vote against Dhlakama's 48 percent. The latter also ran in 2004, but lost again to Frelimo's candidate, this time Armando Guebuza, who received 64 percent of the vote, twice the share of Dhlakama. In 2009, the margin was even greater: 75 percent of the vote for Guebuza and 16 percent for Dhlakama.

Signs of authoritarian rule emerged during the 1990s and the contradictions between Frelimo and Renamo increased again during Guebuza's time in power. The unresolved murder of independent journalist Carlos Cardoso in November 2000 created a precarious atmosphere. Cardoso had since fought independence for a free press and, among other things, contributed to the fact that the constitutional guarantee for press freedom is among the most far-reaching in the world.

After threatening to resume his armed struggle in 2012 and from directing his base in the jungle, directing attacks on, among other police stations, Dhlakama again struck peace with the government in August 2014. In the October 2014 elections, both Renamo and Dhlakama received stronger support, but that was not enough. to a majority in parliament or to victory against Frelimo's presidential candidate, former Defense Minister Filipe Nyusi. Dhlakama accused the government of electoral fraud, but according to independent observers, the outcome of the election had not been affected even though some irregularities had occurred.

In 2015, Parliament voted down a bill on increased self-government for the provinces. After Renamo repeatedly clashed with government forces, 2016 began new peace negotiations. Dhlakama announced a ceasefire in early 2017. The talks between him and Nyusi in 2018 led to some decentralization of power. In May of that year, Afonso Dhlakama passed away. His successor Ossufo Momade (born 1961) was defeated by a wide margin in the 2019 presidential election of Nyusi, which received 73 percent of the vote.

Mozambique participates in cooperation in southern Africa, primarily through the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC), but is primarily focused on cooperation with South Africa, whose industrial and mining center in the northeast has long used Mozambique's capital as a transit port. Mozambique also invests in tourism, especially for South African travelers, and many facilities are owned by South Africa. Mozambique has also allowed white farmers from South Africa to gain land in the country.

Results in parliamentary elections

Voting and mandate distribution in the parliamentary elections since 1994

1994 1999 2004 2009 2014 2019
Frelimo 44.3 (129) 48.5 (133) 62.0 (160) 74.7 (191) 55.9 (144) 71.3 (184)
Renamo 37.8 (112) 38.8 (117) 29.7 (90) 17.7 (51) 32.5 (89) 22.3 (60)
Democratic Union 5.2 (9)
Mozambique's democratic movement 3.9 (8) 8.4 (17) 4.2 (6)

Judiciary

The judicial organization in Mozambique consists of public courts with the Supreme Court in the lead and a number of special courts for, among other things. administrative and labor disputes. The legal system is based on Portuguese legal traditions. The death penalty was abolished in 1990; the last execution took place in 1986.

Heads of State

Presidents

1975-86 Samora Machel
1986-2005 Joaquim Chissano
2005-15 Armando Guebuza
2015- Filipe Nyusi
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