Following the constitution of 1992, with amendments 1996,
Morocco is a unified state monarchy. The Constitution calls
it a "constitutional, democratic and social monarchy"; it
also states that the state is based on Islam. In the new
constitution, some authority has been transferred to elected
bodies, but the king is still the real head of state. The
king appoints and dismisses the prime minister and other
ministers and heads the government's meetings. He sanctions
legislative acts and can initiate amendments to the
Constitution; he can also dissolve the House of
Representatives and submit bills to the referendum. He is
also a military commander, heads a number of state councils
and appoints the top officials.
Legislative authority has been added to a parliament with
two chambers. The lower house is a representative
chamber (Majlis al-Nuwab) with 325 members, elected in
the general election for five years. Thirty of the seats are
reserved for women. The Chamber may set aside the government
collectively by adopting a motion of no confidence or by
denying the vote of confidence. There is also a Senate (Majlis
al-Mustasharin) of 270 members, indirectly elected from
the regions and organizations at work. The election period
is nine years, one third is replaced every three years.
The conflict over Western Sahara control is the most
important destabilizing factor in the country, and it has
also made Morocco internationally isolated. Domestic policy
is characterized by several parties.
Administratively, the country is divided into 16 regions,
three of which include all or part of Western Sahara. The
regions are again divided into municipalities. Although
elected councils at the various levels, the real power of
royal appointed officials, lies in the provinces of
governors. See ABBREVIATIONFINDER for how MO can stand for Morocco.
The judiciary is based on French, Spanish and Islamic
law. The Supreme Court is the Supreme Court. There are also
15 appeals courts, first instance courts, regional courts
and labor courts. There is also a High Court of Justice
consisting of chamber representatives and a royal appointed
president, who adjudicate on matters pertaining to the
office of members of the executive power. There is a Supreme
Judicial Council, headed by the King, who oversees the
judiciary and nominates candidates for judiciary. Judges are
appointed by the king.
Heads of State in Morocco
List of kings in Morocco since independence in 1956.