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Mongolia Politics

State and politics

Mongolia was a communist one-party state from 1939 under the great influence of the Soviet Union. Democratic development occurred in parallel with the fall of communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe 1989-90.

Political System of Mongolia

GOVERNMENT

The Constitution, adopted in January 1992, prescribes a parliament with a relatively strong position and a limited presidential power. The president is elected in general elections for a term of four years and can be re-elected once. All presidents have been men, as have all the country's most influential politicians since independence.

The legislative power is held by Parliament, Stora Chural, whose 76 members are elected in four years by majority vote in one-man constituencies. Parliament elects a prime minister, who heads the government. See ABBREVIATIONFINDER for how MN can stand for Mongolia.

Policy

Major demonstrations forced political changes in March 1990. The leadership of the Communist Party (Mongolian Revolutionary Party, MFRP) was forced to resign, and the party faded Communist ideology. The state government was reformed following changes in the constitution - a presidential post was established, parliament (Chural) strengthened, political parties legalized. Punsalmaagijn Otjirbat (born 1942) was named the country's president. The first relatively free elections were held in July 1990, and the MFRP then got a majority of seats in Parliament. In June 1992, despite a growing social and economic dissatisfaction in the country, the MFRP won 70 of the 76 seats in the newly formed parliament Stora Chural. Otjirbat, supported by the Democratic opposition after leaving the MFRP, won the country's first presidential election in 1993.

In the 1996 parliamentary elections, the MFRP lost power, and a coalition of national democrats and social democrats formed government through a so-called democratic alliance. In the 1997 presidential election, Natsagijn Bagabandi was elected MFRP president. Dissatisfaction with the democratic alliance grew, and Parliament was increasingly divided, while a number of market reforms were being implemented.

Prime Minister Mendsaikhany Enkhsaikhan (born 1955) left his post in 1998 after growing criticism because of the country's growing economic and political problems. The political crisis was spurred when the president and the majority of the National Assembly belonged to different political directions. There was great difficulty in appointing a head of government who could accept the various political directions.

After the 2000 parliamentary elections, however, the MFRP retained its position as the largest party and the situation remained the same in the 2004 and 2008 elections. Bagabandi was re-elected in 2001 and succeeded in 2005 by party friend Nambarijn Enchbajar (born 1958). In 2010, the MFRP changed its name to the Mongolian People's Party (MFP).

Former Prime Minister Tsachiagijn Elbegdordj (born 1963) won in the 2009 and 2013 presidential elections. against 65 for MFP. Despite this, DP's candidate Chaltmaagijn Battulga won in the 2017 presidential election. After the 2016 parliamentary elections, 13 members (17 percent) were women.

Judiciary

The legal system in Mongolia has been developed under very strong Soviet influence, but this system has been abandoned. At the top of the court organization is the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Court. New legislation, including one of the market economy thinking embossed civil law, introduced in the 1990s. The death penalty is punished for some serious crimes.

Leading politicians and presidents

1911-24 Bogdo Gegen
ca 1928-52 Chorloogijn Tjojbalsan
1952-84 Jumdjaagijn Tsedenbal
1984-90 Djambyn Batmönch
1990-97 Punsalmaagijn Otjirbat
1997-2005 Natsagijn Bagabandi
2005-09 Nambarine Enchbajar
2009-17 Tsachiagijn Elbegdordj
2017- Chaltmaagijn Battulga

* As the Head of State has long been of minor importance, politicians who are in fact the most influential are listed here. Since 1990, Mongolia has been a president.

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