State and politics
Mongolia was a communist one-party state from 1939 under
the great influence of the Soviet Union. Democratic
development occurred in parallel with the fall of communism
in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe 1989-90.
The Constitution, adopted in January 1992, prescribes a
parliament with a relatively strong position and a limited
presidential power. The president is elected in general
elections for a term of four years and can be re-elected
once. All presidents have been men, as have all the
country's most influential politicians since independence.
The legislative power is held by Parliament, Stora Chural,
whose 76 members are elected in four years by majority vote
in one-man constituencies. Parliament elects a prime
minister, who heads the government. See ABBREVIATIONFINDER for how MN can stand for Mongolia.
Major demonstrations forced political changes in March
1990. The leadership of the Communist Party (Mongolian
Revolutionary Party, MFRP) was forced to resign, and the
party faded Communist ideology. The state government was
reformed following changes in the constitution - a
presidential post was established, parliament (Chural)
strengthened, political parties legalized. Punsalmaagijn
Otjirbat (born 1942) was named the country's president. The
first relatively free elections were held in July 1990, and
the MFRP then got a majority of seats in Parliament. In June
1992, despite a growing social and economic dissatisfaction
in the country, the MFRP won 70 of the 76 seats in the newly
formed parliament Stora Chural. Otjirbat, supported by the
Democratic opposition after leaving the MFRP, won the
country's first presidential election in 1993.
In the 1996 parliamentary elections, the MFRP lost power,
and a coalition of national democrats and social democrats
formed government through a so-called democratic alliance.
In the 1997 presidential election, Natsagijn Bagabandi was
elected MFRP president. Dissatisfaction with the democratic
alliance grew, and Parliament was increasingly divided,
while a number of market reforms were being implemented.
Prime Minister Mendsaikhany Enkhsaikhan (born 1955) left
his post in 1998 after growing criticism because of the
country's growing economic and political problems. The
political crisis was spurred when the president and the
majority of the National Assembly belonged to different
political directions. There was great difficulty in
appointing a head of government who could accept the various
After the 2000 parliamentary elections, however, the MFRP
retained its position as the largest party and the situation
remained the same in the 2004 and 2008 elections. Bagabandi
was re-elected in 2001 and succeeded in 2005 by party friend
Nambarijn Enchbajar (born 1958). In 2010, the MFRP changed
its name to the Mongolian People's Party (MFP).
Former Prime Minister Tsachiagijn Elbegdordj (born 1963)
won in the 2009 and 2013 presidential elections. against 65
for MFP. Despite this, DP's candidate Chaltmaagijn Battulga
won in the 2017 presidential election. After the 2016
parliamentary elections, 13 members (17 percent) were women.
The legal system in Mongolia has been developed under
very strong Soviet influence, but this system has been
abandoned. At the top of the court organization is the
Supreme Court and the Constitutional Court. New legislation,
including one of the market economy thinking embossed civil
law, introduced in the 1990s. The death penalty is punished
for some serious crimes.
Leading politicians and presidents
* As the Head of State has long been of minor importance,
politicians who are in fact the most influential are listed
here. Since 1990, Mongolia has been a president.