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Ireland's Political System

Irelandis after the Constitution of 1937 (with later amendments) a unified state and parliamentary-democratic republic. The Constitution was adopted in a referendum, and requires that all subsequent constitutional amendments be adopted in referendums. It is to some extent based on the constitution of 1922, when the Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann) gained internal autonomy under the British throne. In 1931, The Statute of Westminster gave all dominions and the Irish Free State the legal right to unilaterally sever ties with Britain. Until 1937, in practice, Ireland served as a dominion under the British crown. The constitution of 1937 made the country in favor, but not in name, of an independent republic. However, it was not until The Republic of Ireland Act in 1948 that the Irish state formally broke all ties with the United Kingdom. The 1937 Constitution claims to apply to the whole of Ireland.

Political System of Ireland

The supreme authority in Ireland is assigned to Parliament (tOireachtas), consisting of a President (Uachtarán na héireann), the House of Representatives (Dáil Éireann) and the Senate (Seanad Éireann). The president is elected in the general election for seven years, is the country's head of state and primarily plays a formal role. The President appoints the Prime Minister (Taoiseach) and - at his suggestion - the other ministers. The President also has the right to submit certain bills to the Supreme Court to have them evaluated in relation to the Constitution. See ABBREVIATIONFINDER for how IE can stand for Ireland.

The legislative power lies with Dáil. It has 166 members, elected in the general election according to the ratio method with transferable vote. The term of office is five years, with the right of dissolution. The government is responsible to the House of Representatives. The Senate has 60 members, elected for five years: 11 are nominated by the Prime Minister, six are elected by the universities, while 43 are elected from five professional panels of candidates. The Senate has 90 days to consider bills passed by the House of Representatives, but cannot veto proposals. Constitutional amendments and sovereignty waivers must be approved through a referendum. For this reason, Ireland has more frequent referendums on EU treaties than any other country.

The two most important parties in Ireland, Fine Gael and Fianna Fáil, both sprang from the independence struggle against the British. The nationalist movement Sinn Féin split in two because of. disagreement over whether to accept the Irish-British Treaty of 1921 negotiated by the movement's leadership. The majority, who formed the forerunner of the Fine Gael party, accepted the treaty that made Ireland de facto independent with loyalty to the British monarch, while the minority, which later formed Fianna Fáil, would have full independence and republic. The political difference between the two major parties is not very large, but Fianna Fáil has been the dominant party since 1932 and most often had the power. Fine Gael has had the government for a shorter period, more recently in a multi-party coalition where, among other things. Labor has entered into.

Since the presidency was introduced in 1937, all heads of state except Independent Mary Robinson (1990-97) have been members of and nominated by the Fianna Fáil Party.

Administratively

Administratively, Ireland divided into 29 counties (counties), in that two of the 26 historic counties - Tipperary and Dublin - are administratively divided into respectively two and three units. Each county is chaired by a county council. The county identity is very strong, and the county boundaries have in practice remained unchanged for over four hundred years. Ireland is fairly centralized and therefore the councils have limited authority. The traditional division of Ireland into four provinces - Leinster, Munster, Connaught and Ulster - is reflected in the constituencies of the European Parliament elections.

At a local level, the former urban and rural areas were replaced by a new law in 2001 by 80 new units, called cities, boroughs and towns respectively. These also have elected representatives.

Judiciary

The constitutions of 1922 and 1937 maintained the former state of law insofar as it did not conflict with the new constitution. Through new legislation and codification measures, much of the old law has been replaced, although Irish law still has some in common with the UK, particularly in the areas of private, criminal and procedural law. All officials are appointed by the President.

In smaller cases, and in slightly larger criminal cases when the parties accept it, local District Courts will initially rule. Cases from these courts can be appealed to Circuit Courts (eight in all), which also has jurisdiction at first instance in more serious criminal and civil cases. Very serious crimes fall under the Central Criminal Court in Dublin. The supreme court of appeal in criminal cases is the Court of Criminal Appeal, made up of the Supreme Court Justice or another Supreme Court judge and two High Court judges.

As in England, there is a Central High Court, with 35 judges and presided over by a presiding judge, who has extensive judicial authority at first instance, but who normally does not deal with cases where subordinate courts are competent. It serves as a court of appeal in civil cases. The Supreme Court is the Supreme Court, the Supreme Court, which consists of a chairman, the Chief Justice, and seven other judges. Jury is used in serious criminal cases, partly in civil cases.

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