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The political system in Greece

The political system in Greece is about how the Greek state is organized and how the state interacts with the rest of society. Greece is a parliamentary- democratic and unified state republic. The government is led by a prime minister, who is based on and is accountable to Parliament, Vouli. The head of state is a president elected by parliament for five years.

Political System of Greece

Constitution and political system

Following the 1975 Constitution, with amendments by 2001, Greece is a parliamentary-democratic and unified state republic. The country has been a member of the EU since 1981. Legislative power has been added to a parliament, Vouli, with up to 300 members, elected in the general election for four years. The government is headed by a prime minister, who assumes and is accountable to parliament.

The head of state is a president, elected by parliament for five years. After 1986, the president has primarily held ceremonial functions and can only be re-elected once. In the event that it is not possible to nominate a prime minister in the usual parliamentary way, the president may convene a Republican council, made up of all former Democratic presidents, the prime minister, the opposition leader and former parliamentary responsible prime ministers. The council can authorize the president to appoint a new prime minister.

Political conflicts

Greece has at times had an unstable political situation. See ABBREVIATIONFINDER for how GR can stand for Greece. From 1946 to 1949, the country went through a civil war, which ended with the defeat of the communists. The constitutional monarchy was reinstated, but the country had weak governments until the military coup in 1967. Following the brutal military dictatorship from 1967 to 1974, the monarchy was abolished following a referendum. Two parties, the socialist PASOK and the conservative New Democracy, have dominated politics since left-wing SYRIZA won the elections in 2015. Gradually, Greek politics and political culture have approached Western European.

What currently creates the most tension in Greek politics is the relationship with Turkey, including the Aegean islands and the tense relations between Greeks and Turks in Cyprus. There has also been tension in relations with neighboring Macedonia and Albania.

Administratively

Administratively, Greece is divided into 13 regions (Athens included), which in turn is divided into 54 prefectures (nomoi) and 1033 municipalities (with elected councils). The system of governance has traditionally been centrally characterized, but since 1983 there has been a real decentralization. The Athos Monk Republic in the Central Macedonia Prefecture is, according to the Constitution, an autonomous region of the Greek state.

Judiciary

The original Greco-Roman law was replaced in 1946 by a German-inspired Civil Code. Commercial law was influenced by the French Trade Code. The judicial system has three ordinary bodies - 59 court cases, 12 court cases and one supreme court with six chambers; In addition there are 360 ​​peace judges and 48 magistrate's courts. There is a special Supreme Court for constitutional issues.

Growth and scope

In the 11th century BCE, when the transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age, the Mycenaean culture of Greece disappeared. In the following centuries, the form of government that became the norm in classical Greek times emerged and continued as a local form of government until the end of antiquity, namely the city ​​state (Greek: police). The city-state consisted of a center with a larger or smaller total settlement and a surrounding area with cultivated land and open land / public. An ordinary police officer wasn't very big, maybe a few hundred square kilometers.

The city states first emerged in Asia Minor around the year 800 BCE. From there, the system spread rapidly to the southern and eastern parts of Greece and to overseas areas when colonization reached about 750. In the northern and western parts of Greece, there were few urban states. Where there were no urban states, looser tribal unions (ethne) were often formed.

Every colony had its mother city and could in turn send out colonies and even become the mother city, but the colonies were almost always politically independent.

Periods

The history of Greek antiquity can be divided into three main periods; archaic time (ca. 800–480 BCE), classical time (480–323 BCE), and Hellenistic time (323–3O BCE).

The Archaic period (ca. 800–480 BCE) was characterized by the emergence of city states, where before there were only petty kingdoms and chieftains. Greece was again given a writing language, distance trade, population growth and monumental buildings, after the so-called "dark centuries" in the wake of the fall of Mycenaean culture ca. 1150 BCE

The Persian wars mark the transition to classical times (480–323 BCE), with Sparta and Athens emerging as the leading states of Greece. After several wars and conflicts, city states were weakened. In 338, the states of Greece (except Sparta) were forced by King Philip of Macedonia. With the death of his son Alexander the Great in 323, the Hellenistic era began. This lasted until around 30 BCE, when the last Hellenistic kingdom, Egypt, became subject to the Roman Empire.

State and society

Ancient Greece was politically divided. Hundreds of small city ​​states over a period of many hundreds of years did not create a unified political culture. There were alliances and military alliances, but political gathering for one state was never discussed. But the Greeks were nevertheless aware that they had much in common culturally and politically, not least because they lived in the special form of city-state that was called police. In the strictest sense, police were a collective of men with civil rights (not women, children and non-citizens). Ideally, each police had autonomy (freedom and own laws) and autarchy (able to manage with their own resources). In reality, most were subject to a hegemon (Greek leader / wizard) and conducted extensive trade with other city states to access the goods they needed.

Where full political rights were reserved for a minority of the rich, the form of government was called oligarchy (rule of the few); where all citizens had (virtually) equal rights, it was called democracy (government of the people) or isonomy (equal share in the board).

Corinth was one of the states that had a strong oligarchy. In Sparta, full citizens constituted a small part of the total population. The state's military needs were an overriding factor, and the constitution changed little after the 500s.

The Athenian democracy

Athens developed a democracy in classical times. There were several democratic poles, including Syracuse in the mid-400s BCE. but it is only the Athenian democracy that we know well from the sources. Athens introduced democracy in 507 BCE, and it was the backdrop for a cultural boom that has characterized Europe to this day. Democracy survived a series of oligarchic coups and continued in modified form until Roman times.

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