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Dominican Republic Politics

State and politics

The constitution of the Dominican Republic is from 1966 with amendments by 2010. The executive power is exercised by a president, who is elected for a four-year term in direct, general elections. A vice president serves as the president's deputy. The president appoints the members of his government and executes the congress's decision. The National Congress exercises legislative power and consists of two chambers - the Senate with 32 and the Chamber of Deputies with 183 members. In the Senate, each province and the capital Santo Domingo are represented by a member. In the House of Representatives, the size of the population determines the number of representatives, but no province has fewer than two. The choices for the House of Representatives are proportional, with a blocking rule of 5%. Citizens over 18 (and married under 18) have the right to vote. Military and police may not vote.

Political System of Dominican Republic

Dominican politics has long been characterized by personal fixation, party fragmentation and widespread politician disdain. See ABBREVIATIONFINDER for how DR can stand for Dominican Republic. By far the leading personality was Joaquín Balaguer of Partido Reformista Social Cristiano (PRSC) who, at his death in 2002, was president for a total of 22 years for seven terms since 1966. His last election victory came in 1991 when he was 84 years old. Since then, both opposition parties Partido Revolucionario Dominicano (PRD) and Partido de la Liberación Dominicana(PLD) alternately held the presidential post. Their power holdings, however, have been characterized by corruption and extensive popular protests. The 2004 presidential election was won by Leonel Fernández (PLD). Fernández and PDL also won the election in 2008. During Fernández's reign, the country experienced a relatively favorable economic development, and PDL was also strong ahead of the elections in 2012. However, Fernández was not allowed to run for another term, and instead Danilo Medina was named presidential candidate. He won with 51% of the vote against 47% for PRD's main opponent Hipólito Mejía. The election results were questioned by the PRD who accused the government of electoral fraud. See also History.

Judiciary

The judicial organization consists of a supreme court, a number of appellate courts, general courts and petty courts. In addition, there are administrative and labor courts. The legal system is dominated by major codifications of the French-Spanish type, namely the Civil Code, the Civil Procedure Code, the Trade Code, the Penal Code, the Criminal Procedure Code and the Labor Code. The death penalty was abolished in 1966.

Heads of State

Presidents

1821-22 José Núñez de Cáceres
1822-44 occupied by Haiti
1844-48 Pedro Santana
1848-49 Manuel Jiménez
1849 Pedro Santana
1849-53 Buenaventura Baéz
1853-56 Pedro Santana
1856 Manuel de Regla-Motta
1856-58 Buenaventura Baéz
1858-59 José Valverde
1859-61 Pedro Santana
1861-65 occupied by Spain
1865 Pedro Pimental
1865 José Cabral
1865-66 Buenaventura Baéz
1866-68 José Cabral
1868-73 Buenaventura Baéz
1874 Ganier the abin
1874-76 Ignacio González
1876 Ulises Espaillat
1876 Ignacio González
1876-78 Buenaventura Baéz
1878-79 Cesáreo Guillermo
1879-80 Gregorio Lupéron
1880-84 Fernando de Merino
1884-85 Ulises Heureaux
1885-87 Francisco Billini
1887-89 Ulises Heureaux
1889 Juan Figuereo
1889 Horacio Vásquez
1889-1902 Juan Jiménez
1902-03 Horacio Vásquez
1903 Alejandro Wos y Gil
1903-04 Juan Jiménez
1904-06 Carlos Morales Lauguasco
1906-11 Ramón Cáceres
1911-12 Eladio Victoria
1912-13 Adolfo Nouel and Bobadilla
1913-14 José Bordas Valdes
1914 Ramón Baéz
1914-16 Juan Jiménez
1916-22 Francisco Henriquez y Carvajal
1922-24 Juan Vicini Burgos
1924-30 Horacio Vásquez
1930 Rafael Estrella Urena
1930-38 Rafael Trujillo
1938-40 Jacinto Peynado
1940-42 Manuel Troncoso de la Concha
1942-52 Rafael Trujillo
1952-60 Héctor Trujillo Molina
1960-62 Joaquín Balaguer
1962-63 Rafael Bonelly
1963 Juan Bosch
1963 Emilio de los Santos
1963-65 Donald Reid Cabral
1965 José Molina Urena
1965 civil war
1965-66 Hector García-Godoy Cáceres
1966-78 Joaquín Balaguer
1978-82 Antonio Guzmán Fernandez
1982 Jacobo Majluta Azar
1982-86 Salvador Jorge Blanco
1986-96 Joaquín Balaguer
1996-2000 Leonel Fernandez
2000-2004 Rafael Hipólito Mejía Domínguez
2004-2012 Leonel Fernandez
2012- Danilo Medina
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