Following the 1993 constitution, the Czech Republic is a
unified state and a democratic-parliamentary republic. The
head of state, the president, is primarily a constitutional
head of state, but the country's first president, Václav
Havel, played an important political role, not least by
virtue of its moral leadership. The president appoints the
prime minister, government and other key officials, as well
as representing the state overseas and formally being
military commander in chief. Prior to the 2013 presidential
election, the president was elected by the two chambers of
the legislative assembly for five years with the possibility
of one re-election. With the 2013 election, the president is
elected in direct elections. To be eligible for election, a
candidate must either have the support of 20 MPs or senators
or the signature of 50,000 eligible voters. If a candidate
does not get a majority, a second ballot is held.
The executive is in fact with the prime minister and the
government. The government is based on, and is responsible
for, the lower chamber of the Legislative Assembly, the
Chamber of Deputies (Poslanecká Sněmovna). It has
200 members and is elected for four years; the second
chamber, the senate, has 81 members and is elected for six
years, so the third party is replaced every other year. Both
chambers are elected in general elections.
Following the collapse of the communist regime in 1989
(the "velvet revolution") and the dissolution of the
federation with Slovakia from 1993, the Czech Republic has
built a new state and a new political system. The party
system has been under development, the most important being
the Liberal Conservative ODS and the Social Democratic ČSSD.
Other important parties are the Communist Party KSČM, the
Christian Democrats KDU – ČSL and the Right Party TOP 09.
Newer minor parties are SPOZ, Věci veřejné, ANO, Dawn for
Direct Democracy and LIDEM.
Administratively, the Czech Republic is divided into 14
regions (kraj), among them the Prague metropolitan
area. They are led by a people-elected council, with
associated executive bodies. See ABBREVIATIONFINDER for how EZ can stand for Czech Republic.
The judiciary includes a Supreme Court, the Supreme
Administrative Court, convicts, regional courts and district
courts. It is also a constitutional court of its own.
Presidents of the Czech Republic
Prime Ministers of the Czech Republic
||Václav Klaus (ODS)
||Josef Tošovský (partyless)
||Miloš Zeman (ČSSD)
||Vladimír Špidla (ČSSD)
||Stanislav Gross (ČSSD)
||Jirí Paroubek (ČSSD)
||Mirek Topolánek (ODS)
||Jan Fischer (independence).
||Petr Nečas (ODS)
||Jiří Rusnok (uh.)
||Bohuslav Sobotka (ČSSD)