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Comoros Politics

Political System of Comoros

The Comoros, which have been populated by one of the last Indonesian emigrations since the early 5th century, were cut off from the continent until the 12th century, when Islamic traders from Kilua settled on the islands, founded ports and brought a civilization form from it. coasts of the African continent. (See Tanzania: "The Zandj Culture"). Until the 16th century, the Comoros took part in the prosperity of the area and therefore fell victim to the attacks of the Portuguese, destroying the island's economy. As the Sultan of Oman succeeded in expelling the Portuguese from the region, the Comoros became subservient to Zanzibar and the slave trade increased the number of Bantu.

Following the detachment of Zanzibar from the Sultanate of Oman in the 19th century, the European pressure intensified and ended with the French occupation of Mayotte in 1843. The colonial dominance then spread to the entire archipelago, due to the profitable production of spices, and in addition the location of the island played a important strategic role. See ABBREVIATIONFINDER for how KM can stand for Comoros.

Molinaco, the Comorian National Liberation Movement, formed with the local Socialist Party, Pasoco, National Unity Front, FNU; this organization pushed the French government to print a referendum in 1974 in which 154,182 voters voted for independence while only 8,854 voted against.

Proponents of continued accession to France concentrated on Mayotte - that accounted for 63% of the island's population. France has built an important naval and aircraft base here. Some hundred Catholic mestiz families, mainly of French descent, control the economy of Mayotte and they are mainly organized in the "Mahoré People's Movement", MPM, led by Marcel Henry.

Ahmed Abdallah, the first prime minister in the semi-autonomous local government and one of the archipelago's largest rice exporters, declared the Comoros independent in July 1975 without awaiting the French's recognition of the voting result. Abdallah feared that his party, "Udzima", which means Unity, would lose ground in comparison to FNU when the Constitutional National Assembly first met. In an attempt to exploit the situation, MPM declared its interest in preserving Mayotte as French territory. France supported the island's withdrawal from the Comoran community in order to maintain its military presence in the Indian Ocean, thus breaking its earlier promise to respect Comorian sovereignty and the outcome of the referendum. Admittedly, the Comoros did not prevent the UN from joining

Less than a month after the Declaration of Independence, a smaller group of younger supporters of the FNU occupied the Moroni government palace and appointed socialist Ali Soilih as president instead of Ahmed Abdallah. France immediately deployed an army force consisting of 3 warships and 10,000 soldiers on Mayotte - the equivalent of one soldier for every 3 inhabitants.

Paid by Ahmed Abdallah from his Paris exile, a group of mercenaries in May 1978 landed on the island of Greater Comora and deposed Ali Soilih, executed 3 days later. The fact that the operation was led by Frenchman Bob Denard, who had been prosecuted as a mercenary by the Benin government in 1977, led to protests from the international community - to such an extent that the Comoros were excluded from the ministerial meeting of the Organization of African Unity, OAU, which took place in Khartoum, Sudan.

Denard then, in collaboration with 30 mercenaries, became the leader of the president's personal guard corps, which consisted of 650 men, and achieved to become a key figure in the archipelago's political life.

 

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