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Colombia's Political System

Following the Constitution of 1991, Colombia is a unified state and democratic republic. The executive is added to a president-elect for four years. The president can be re-elected once. Legislative power has been added to a congress consisting of a 102-member Senate and a House of Representatives consisting of at least two representatives from each of the country's ministries (provinces) and metropolitan area, as well as three seats reserved for the country's African-American (2) and Native American (1) population; after the 2006 election, the House of Representatives has 166 members. Both chambers are elected in direct elections for four years.

Political System of Colombia

Since the end of the 19th century, the country's politics have been characterized by the tension between the liberals and the conservatives, a tension that has partly assumed a violent character and led to authoritarian rule. From 1966, leftist guerrilla groups have also contributed to destabilizing the state government and making violence an essential element of the political struggle. Since 1990 there has been an approach between the old parties and some of the guerrilla groups. At the same time, however, cocaine cartels have emerged as new and demanding challenges for the regime. The military authorities exercise considerable power and can intervene directly and indirectly in politics. Under the new constitution, the Indians were granted extended rights, but not of a territorial nature.

Administratively

Administratively, Colombia is divided into 32 ministries as well as the metropolitan district. The ministries are led by elected governors and assemblies. Under the new constitution, more authority has been delegated to regional and local levels. See ABBREVIATIONFINDER for how CO can stand for Colombia.

Judiciary

In order to ensure the constitutional integrity of the country, there is a constitutional court with nine judges elected by the Senate for eight years. The Supreme Court consists of three courts, one for civil cases, one for criminal cases and one for labor law cases. The judges of the Supreme Court are appointed for eight years after the nomination of a higher justice council.

Colombia's defense

Colombia has a general duty of military service for men with initial service of 18 months. The country has been haunted by civil war for decades between government forces and paramilitary groups (FARC, ELN, AUC) involved in drug trafficking. The total force numbers for Colombia's armed forces are 293,200 active personnel, with a reserve of 34,950 personnel (2018, IISS). In addition, 187 900 personnel arrive in a semi-military national police force.

Army

The army has a workforce of 223,150 active personnel. Materials include 121 lorries, 60 storm tanks, 114 armored personnel vehicles, three ELINT aircraft, 222 transport aircraft, and 110 helicopters. In addition, the army has heavy artillery and light air defense artillery.

Air Force

The Air Force has a personnel force of 13,650 active personnel. Material includes 22 Kfir type fighters, 12 attack aircraft (six A-37B Dragonfly and six AC-47 Spooky), 13 reconnaissance aircraft, 13 ELINT aircraft, one tanker, 64 transport aircraft, 78 training aircraft (of which 38 can also be used as light attack aircraft), 131 helicopters and eight medium- heavy drones.

The Navy

The Navy has a staff of 56,400 active personnel, including 22,250 Marines. The fleet includes four tactical submarines, four frigates, 62 patrol vessels, 23 landings, and eight logistics and auxiliary vessels. The Navy's air force has three maritime patrol aircraft, one reconnaissance aircraft, 11 light transport aircraft, and 17 helicopters.

International operations

Colombia participated in the Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) force in Egypt in 2018 with 275 personnel.

Other Countries in South America

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