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Brazil's Political System

Constitution and political system

Brazil is a presidential and democratic federal state under the 1988 Constitution. See ABBREVIATIONFINDER for how BR can stand for Brazil. The president is elected in the general election for four years and can be re-elected once. If no candidate gets a pure majority, there will be a new ballot between the two candidates who got the most votes. The President leads the government and appoints its members. Legislative authority has been added to a National Assembly consisting of a Chamber of Deputies (Câmara dos Deputados) and a Senate (Senado Federal). The Chamber of Deputies is elected in the general election directly according to the ratio principle; It has 513 members and is elected for four years. The Senate has 81 members, elected for eight years (1/ 3 is selected for four years and the other 2/ 3 after an additional four years) by majority principle; the 26 states and the federal district elect three senators each. The voting age is 16 years, and for persons between the ages of 18 and 70, voting is possible, with the exception of illiterate persons.

Political System of Brazil

The political system is unstable. Throughout the post-war period, the country has constantly switched between military and relatively liberal democratic rule. Major economic problems with social unrest, constant corruption scandals, increasing international pressure on the country to pay closer attention to Indians and the ecology of the Amazon region and a personal and intriguing policy are the main reasons for the low stability. The party system is very fragmented, and they are often loose, fractional coalitions around individuals.

As a federal state, Brazil is divided into 26 states and a federal district (Brazil). Each of these is chaired by a people elected (four years) governor and a legislative assembly. At the local level, there are nearly 4,500 municipalities, governed by elected mayors and councils.

Judiciary

The federal judiciary includes a supreme federal court with 11 judges (serving as state courts), a higher judicial (supreme court) court with 33 judges, five regional federal courts and 26 state courts, in addition to courts and judges in the federal district and territories. The federal judges are appointed by the president for life, but must be approved by the Senate.

Heads of State in Brazil

Brazil gained its final independence in 1822, when Dom Pedro, son of the exiled Portuguese king Johan 6, was proclaimed emperor. Dom Pedro left Brazil in 1831 and handed the throne to his 6-year-old son, Dom Pedro 2. He was deposed in a Republican coup in 1890, and Brazil has been a republic ever since.

Monarchy

Period Emperor
1822-1831 Dom Pedro 1
1831-1889 Dom Pedro 2

Republic

Period President
1890-1891 Manuel Deodora da Fonseca
1891-1894 Floriano Peixoto
1894-1898 Prudente José de Moraes Barros
1898-1902 Manuel Ferraz de Campos Salles
1902-1906 Francisco de Paulo Rodrigues Alves
1906-1909 Affonso Augosto Moreira Penna
1909-1910 Nilo Pecanha
1910-1914 Hermes Rodrigo da Fonseca
1914-1918 Wenceslau Braz Pereira Gomez
1918-1919 Delphim Moreira
1919-1922 Epitácio de Silva Pessòa
1922-1926 Arthur da Silva Bernardes
1926-1930 Washington Louís Pereira de Sousa
1930-1945 Getúlio Vargas
1945-1946 José Linhares
1946-1951 Enrico Gaspar Dutra
1951-1954 Getúlio Vargas
1954-1955 João Cafe Filho
1955 Carlos Coimbra da Luz
1955-1956 Nereu de Oliviera Ramos
1956-1961 Juscelino Kubitschek
1961 Jânio Quadros
1961-1964 João Goulart
1964-1967 Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco
1967-1969 Artur da Costa e Silva
1969-1974 Emílio Garrastazú Médici
1974-1979 Ernesto Geisel
1979-1985 João Baptista de Figueiredo
1985 Tancredo Neves
1985-1989 José Sarney
1990-1992 Fernando Collor de Mello
1992-1994 Itamar Franco
1995-2002 Fernando Henrique Cardoso
2003-2010 Luiz Inácio «Lula» da Silva
2011-2016 Dilma Rousseff
2016-2019 Michel Temer
2019- Jair Bolsonaro
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