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Bosnia and Herzegovina Politics

See ABBREVIATIONFINDER for how BA can stand for Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Political System of Bosnia and Herzegovina

In June 1996, public supplies of electricity, water and transport began to rise to an earlier level, and Sarajevo was revived. The barriers to refugees being able to return to their home areas, unless it was a zone now under the control of their "own", the restrictions on the free press, and the hassle faced by several NGOs, made it worse the negotiating climate that was considered necessary for a sound settlement of the elections to be held in September.

73% of the electorate participated in the September 14 elections. The Muslim Democratic Action Party (SDA), led by Alija Izebegovic, became the largest party with 37.8% of the vote, gaining 19 of Parliament's 42 seats. The Serbian Democratic Party, whose candidate was Momcilo Krajisnik, with 24%, gained 9 seats, while the Croatian Democratic Union, led by Kresimir Zubak, was only number 3, with 14% and 8 seats in parliament. Veed the vote on the presidential post, Izetbegovic received just 40,000 more votes than Krajisnik, but almost 2 1/2 times as many as the Croatian candidate and Izetbegovic became president of the presidential troika.

Serbian leader Karadzic was the center of some controversy during 1997. The EU pushed for him to appear in court in The Hague, and rumors that North American, French and British commandos were in the process of launching an operation to capture him, began to come into circulation. The Bosnian and Croatian presidents met in Split to launch the idea of ​​a Croat-Bosnian federation, and at the same time pledged to enable the return of many refugees.

Karadzic questioned the value of the December 97 election, accusing the West's representatives of agreeing the results that would favor the Croatian and Muslim parties. SDS, under the control of Karadzic, declined from 45 to 24 seats in parliament. European observers guaranteed the outcome of the election. On March 2, 1998, the United States announced its intention to cut its troop contingent in NATO-led peacekeeping forces. The commission, which will issue a judgment on the future of the port city of Brcko in the middle of the month, decided to postpone a decision by the end of the year. The city remains under international protection.

Political System of Bosnia and Herzegovina PoliticsThe September 1998 elections confirmed Izetbegovic's hold on power. He got 31% of the vote (86.8% of the Muslim vote), ¤ivko Radicic got 21.8% (51.2% of the Serbs) and Ante Jelaviš got 11.5% (52% of the Croatian vote). The election was a victory for the existing Muslim and Croat parties, but Karadzic's party had to be defeated by the Radical Serbian Party. The Republic's High Commissioner, Carlos Westendorp, took a number of unifying initiatives such as the creation of a common flag and symbols for Bosnia-Herzegovina, but these initiatives also created new conflicts. Each party maintained their own military forces, and the federation between Muslims and Croats was characterized by not being organic - it was artificial. This was mainly because Franjo Tudjman was sitting in the presidential post in Croatia,

Tudjman's death in December 1999 and the moderate left's subsequent electoral victory in Croatia were therefore welcomed by both Muslims and Serbs in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The municipal elections in April 2000 made great progress for the multi-ethnic Social Democracy. The Muslim Democratic Action Party lost many votes in both Sarajevo and other cities. Some areas with Croatian majority decided to boycott the elections for local reasons. Yet the nationalist political parties remain so strong that it hinders the return of the tens of thousands of internal refugees in the country.

The December 2000 parliamentary elections had given a narrow majority to the non-nationalist parties, but the formation of a new government stalled due to the struggle for power with the nationalist parties. International High Commissioner Wolfgang Petritsch removed the then Croatian representative of the Bosnian presidential post, Ante Jelavic, and accused him of damaging Dayton's agreements by supporting the creation of a Croatian ministry. At the same time, at the beginning of 2001, the IMF and the World Bank announced that they would not allocate more money to the country until the political crisis was resolved. But only in February could the new non-nationalist government take its place.

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